Stereotypes

what is the social cognitive perspective
adopting models of cognition and applying them to social psychology
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define stereotype
the association between group membership and then certain knowledge, beliefs and expectations
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who was the first to measure stereotypes
Katz and Braley
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they did this quite _____
blatantly
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however now we use what measures
implicit
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what two techniques of implicit measures
priming and reaction time
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define priming
the presentation of a stimulus that either facilitates or inhibits the processing of a subsequent stimulus
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what are the two types of priming
subliminal and supraliminal
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what is the difference
they are not consciously aware of the prime in subliminal and they are consciously aware of the prime in supraliminal (but unaware to its effects)
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why would we use reaction times to study stereotypes
the closer associated stimuli is in memory, the faster the participants response
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who did a priming study on racial stereotyping
Dovido et al
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what was the prime
either the word black or white
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what was measured
reaction time between prime, positive or negative word
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draw the results
...
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who studied the possible effects of this stereotype
Corell et al
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what were they primed with
a newspaper article by armed robbery, either black or white
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therefore what type of prime is this
supraliminal
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then the participants played what
a video game
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what was the conditions
black or white target
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if they were primed with black, who were quicker to get shot
black
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if they were primed with white, who were quicker to get shot
neither, no effect
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what did corell et al manipulate in study two
ratio of armed and unarmed targets
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the conditions were either stereotype _________ or stereotype _________
congruent, incongruent
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what was the stereotype congruent condition
more black armed
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what was the stereotype incongruent condition
more white armed
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what did they find
quicker to shoot black armed, than white armed
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what are 4 possible places stereotypes came from
society, self, evolution or social cognition
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explain society derived stereotypes
social object, social origins and socially shared
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explain self derived stereotypes
from feel personal needs i.e need to belong, need to feel superior
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explain evolution derived stereotypes
useful mental shortcut for survival
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explain social cognition derived stereotypes
stereotyping is a byproduct of every day thinking
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what is this byproduct called
categorisation
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what is categorisation
we come across so much information in every day life we need to categorise them
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give 5 benefits of categorisation
1. quick/shortcut/heuristic 2. organised structure in memory 3. logical simplification 4 energy saving 5. resource saving
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People are cognitive ____
misers
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we follow the principle of what
least effort
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___, ____ solution > ____, ____ solution
Rapid, adequate. slow, accurate.
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who gave evidence for stereotypes having cognitive benefits
Macrae et al
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the participants were given what
information about a target and ten personality traits
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what were the conditions
prime about target i.e artist or skinhead, or no prime
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__ of the traits were stereotypical, __ were not
5, 5
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what did the participants then undergo
test on recall of traits and a probe task
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what were the overall findings for the primed participants
did better at trait recall and probe task
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what were the findings for the subliminal primed participants
better at recalling all traits
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what were the findings for the supraliminal primed participants
better at recalling stereotypical traits
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what were the findings for the no prime participants
worse at trait recall and probe
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what are 8 influencers of stereotypes
Attention, Ambiguous stimuli, Attribution, Mental capacity, Mood, Memory, Gathering, Behaviour
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who studied the influence of attention on stereotypes
Cohen
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what bias is relevant
confirmation bias
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what is the confirmation bias
we are more likely to attend to info consistent with stereotype than irrelevant
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what were the participants shown
video of woman
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they were told before she was a _____ or a ______
waitress or librarian
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the label changed what
the information they remembered
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who studied the influence of ambiguous stimuli on sterotypes
Darley and Gross
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participants were shown what of who
2 videos of hannah
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what was the first video
hannah in wealthy or working class setting
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what was the second video
hannah discussing performance on a test which was very ambiguous
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then they were asked to do what
predict ability and test performance
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what did they find
participants shown the wealthy video, high ability and most question right, working class - low ability and half wrong
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the fundamental attribution error is on an individual level, but the ____________ is on a group level
ultimate attribution error
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we are more likely to attribute _____ traits ______ to our in group and ________ traits ________ to our in group
positive interally, negative situationally
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this is the opposite for who
the outgroup
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who studied the influence of mental capacity on stereotypes
Bodenhausen
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participants were presented with what
legal trial about sports student that got caught cheating
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what stereotype does this draw upon
dumb sport student
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the participants described themselves as either ____ or ____ people
morning or evening
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they were then asked for a guilty rating at either __ or __
9am or 8pm
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draw the results
...
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who studied the influence of mood on stereotypes
Bodenhausen et al
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how was mood manipulated
either asked to talk about happy thing that happened in the week or neutral
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what were the students presented with
legal trial for cheating and barfight
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what stereotyping were given
sport student and hispanic
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who gave more stereotyped responses
happy
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what manipulating was in the follow up
accountability
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what effect did this have
wiped out stereotype
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who studied memories influence on stereotypes
snyder et al
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participants were given information about who
Betty K
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they were then told she was _______, ________ or ________
married, lesbian, nothing
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1 week later they gave the participants a what
MCQ about betty
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participants that were given married or lesbian labels did what
badly on MCQ, answered questions about betty that information was not even given but was align with stereotype
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what is this called
memory intrusion
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participants that were given no label did what
better in MCQ
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who studied the influence of gathering information on stereotypes
snyder et al
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participants were told they were gonna given a what
interview
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to either a ____or a _____
extrovert, introvert
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they had to pick questions from what
a selected list
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they chose questions that were what
more likely to confirm their hypothesis
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who studied the influence of behaviour on stereotypes
Word et al
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explain behaviours influence
you elicit the behaviour you expect
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what is this called
self fulfilling prophecy
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question about study
answer about study
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question about study
answer about study
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question about study
answer about study
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what are 5 negatives of the social cognitive theory
no focus on stereotype accuracy, no focus on stereotype exaggeration, humans belong to more than one category, why do we stereotype some categories more than others, reductionist, individualistic
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why reductionist
artificiality of experiment
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why individualistic
no social interaction!
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what is an alternative theory of stereotypes
social theory
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Write and Taylor bring up what important question
are stereotypes always negative
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what is a negative aspect of stereotypes
prejudice
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the ____ and _____ of stereotypes and prejudice is unclear
link, direction
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what is prejudice
a positive or negative prejudgement of a specific social group
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who gave 3 components of prejudice
Allport
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what are they
Cognition, constance, Affect
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explain the constance component
intention to act in a certain way towards target
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who gave evidence for the role of affect
Cottrell et al
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how we ___ about groups is just as important as what we ___ about them
feel, think
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prejudices can differ how
underlying affect
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this can influence what
different behavioural responses
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for example, anger towards a group could lead to ____, disgust towards a group could lead to ____. fear towards a group could lead to ____
violence, avoidance, defence
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Cottrell et al found similar ratings of prejudice from white americans towards home
African, Asian and Native americans
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where were the differences
in the emotions felt towards them
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what type of question might mask this
do you like them or not
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there is _____ in stereotype content
asymmetry
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what does this mean
some stereotypes are more positive or negative than others
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are these stable
no
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why might this be
historical and relational factors
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who gave evidence for this
Haslam et al
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_____ students, stereotyped ________, before and after the _______
Australian, American, Gulf war
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what did they find
Australians had less positive and more arrogant stereotypes of americans after the gulf war
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but this finding depended on what
the context of the question
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which context did they find this finding in
when asked about Australian, Uk and American stereotypes
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which context did they not find this finding in
when asked about Australian, UK, American, Russian and Iraq stereotypes
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why might this be
shift in ingroup and outgroup
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stereotyping is not a ___ activity it is a ____ activity
private, public
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do we use stereotypes to define outgroups
yes, BUT we also use them to define ingroups
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what theory is relevant here
social identity theory
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social identity theory says we are motivated to do what
have positive perception of self identity
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how do we do this
by making social group comparisons and trying to find positively valued distinctions
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these positively valued distinctions can be what
ingroup bias or an outgroup derogation
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what does this lead to
intergroup differentiation/discrimination
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groups are in a state of what
social competition
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stereotypes have what 4 functions
self identity, predict social environment, justification for behaviour, justification for maintaining group distinctions
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what is system justification
psychological process, that preserves existing social arrangements EVEN at expensive of personal or group interest
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this explains what 2 things
negative stereotyping by members of a disadvantaged group, essentialism
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who did a study to support this
Hoffman and hurst
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they gave participants descriptions of who
Aliens, A's or O's
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the descriptions were how many traits
3
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the traits were what
1 neutral, 1 communal, 1 agentic
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how did A and O differ
80% city workers or 20% child workers or vice versa
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participants had to rate what
agentic or communal traits of aliens
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one group also had a what manipulation
accountability manipulation
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the aliens in the group that were 80% city workers were always rated as more what
agentic
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even more so in the what
accountability manipulation
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he aliens in the group that were 20% city workers were always rated as more what
communical
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even more so in the what
accountability manipulation
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who studied the similarity between stereotype content across cultures
Fiske
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what was the model called
stereotype content model
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the stereotype contence depends on what two things
warmth and competence
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she creates a map that she believes what
most outgroups can be placed onto
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High Warmth and Low Competence causes what type of prejudice
Paternalistic
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Low Warmth and High Competence causes what type of prejudice
Envious
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we often feel _____ about these groups
ambivalent
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High Warmth and High Competence is who
us
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Low Warmth and Low Competence causes what type of prejudice
contemptuous
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Who has the same idea but less focused on cross culture more focus on international relationships
Alexandre et al
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what was the theory called
image theory
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all images have what motive
make the ingroup morally superior
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what determines image
structure, sentiment, behavioural inclination, image
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draw the table
...
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Who gave evidence for this
Alexandre et al
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who were his p's
students of a university
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what were they told they had to do
compete for funds against a rival uni
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they varied what
the image of the rival university to fit one of the four
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they did an MCQ to test what
if they expressed the structure, sentiment, behavioural inclinations and image in alignment with condition
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did they find this
yes apart from barbarian
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using stereotypes is ____ for the perceiver but ____ for the target
benefical, costly
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fiske believes we can avoid stereotyping if what 3 things
we have a lot of info, we have the cognitive capacity to attend to it all, we have motivation
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what is the opposite of a cognitive miser
motivated tactician
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how did fiske motivate people to not use stereotypes
outcome dependency, accuracy importance, accountability
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these are all ____ motivations
external
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fiske recognises the motivated tacticians chose be so in what two styles
wisely and defensively
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why did the wise ones avoid stereotypes
for adaptability and accuracy
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why did the defensive ones avoid stereotypes
speed and self esteem
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who disagrees with this
Devine
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why
she believes some people are internally motivated to avoid stereotypes
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what important difference does she recognise
knowing stereotypes and endorsing them
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there is ______ for al but _____ for some
automatic activation for all but conscious inhibition for some
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how many studies did she do for evidence
3
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what two things did she ask her participants to do in study 1
take a racism questionnaire and then list all the cultural stereotypes of blacks
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where was the similarity
in the amount of stereotypes known
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where was the difference
in the racism scale
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what did she use in her second study
priming
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what type
subliminal
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what were the primes of
stereotypes of African Americans
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what were the conditions
strong prime 80% of words were stereotypes, weak prime 20% of words were stereotypes
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they read a ____ paragraph about ____
ambiguous, donald
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people in the strong prime condition made more what
hostile/agressive interpretations of donald
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this did NOT depend on what
high or low racism scores
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what did she ask participants to do in study 3
list their personal thoughts towards black americans
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what did she find
differences that were connected to scores on racism scale
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Devine said people need what 3 things to avoid stereotypes
intention, attention, time
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what is her phrase
prejudice with compunction
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she said we should feel what 4 things about stereotypes
aware, guilty, concerned, reject
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her invention encourages what
concern and guilt
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the aim of this is to increase what
internal motivation
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who did the 'just say no' study
Kawakami et al
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what did they ask participants to do
press no button for stereotypical black word and black face and press no for stereotypical white word and white face
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what did they find
after this reaction time for stereotypical info was slower
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who disputes all of this positivy
wegner
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what effect did he identify
rebound
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explain the rebound effect
when you activley try to suppress thought, as soon as you stop it will be more increased than it was before the suppresion
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when you suppress a thought, what gets activated
intentional process to drive out consciousness and automatic process to monitor it
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the monitoring has a ____ effect at a ___ level
paradoxical, low
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who did a study to support this
Wegner
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he told half of the participants to what
think about white bears
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he told half of the participants to what
not think about white bears
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he asked all participants to do what
speak all thoughts out loud into tap recorder and ring bell everytime spoke or thought about white bears
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he then left them in a room for how long
5 minutes
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draw the graph of total bell rings
...
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after the instructions were what
reversed
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draw the graph of total bell rings
...
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who studied this rebound effect with real people
Macrae et al
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they asked participants to write 2 paragraphs about who
skinheads
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what were the conditions
first group no stereo then no rules, second group no rules then no stereo
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which para from who contained the mOST stereotypes
first group, second para
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the first group also did what in a subseqent study
sat further away from supposed skinheads chair
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why is this good
behavioural, objective measure
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who disagreed with Macraes work
Montieth
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Montieth recognised what about the groups that Macrae had used
noone felt bad about stereotyping them
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the rebound effect depends on what 2 things
type of person the stereotype is about and personal attitude towards prejudice
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rebound is less likley when what 2 things
people are low in prej and social norms suggest the prejudice is unacceptable
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who did a study to support this
Motieth
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it was the same as Macraes but about who
gay couple
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they also had to do what
memory test of words associated with gay
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low prejudice people show what
less rebound, worse in memory
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high prejudice people show what
more rebound, better in memory
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what is stereotyping disconfirmation
making stereotypes less inaccurate
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who is a crucial figure
weber and crocker
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what are the 3 components
booking keeping (modification), conversion (radical change) subtyping (subgroups)
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which is less likely
conversion
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you choose booking keeping when you
disperse
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you choose subtyping when you
concentrate
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draw the box
..
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but what question rmeians
is subtyping even good
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Card 2

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define stereotype

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the association between group membership and then certain knowledge, beliefs and expectations

Card 3

Front

who was the first to measure stereotypes

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

they did this quite _____

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

however now we use what measures

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