Cognitive Psychology

Apperceptive Agnosia
can usually describe individual elements of an object. They can see objects form and features, but they seem unable to "bind" individual components together into a meaningful whole
1 of 264
Associative Agnosia
unable to link percepts to meaning. Impairment in recognition or assigning meaning to a stimulus that is accurately perceived and not associated with a generalised deficit in intelligence, memory, language or attention
2 of 264
a condition mostly caused by brain damage in which there is a severe impairment in face recognition but less impairment of object recognition; also known as face blindness
3 of 264
Perceptual load
high load tasks --> less distraction (reduces attentional control) --> makes us more distractible. Have to control self cognitively
4 of 264
Cognitive Load
(working memory demands) high load tasks --> more distraction
5 of 264
Attentional Systems
Posner 1980
6 of 264
Endogenous System
Controlled by the individual's and expectations; voluntary, goal-directed, slow, conscious process
7 of 264
Exogenous system
involuntary, stimulus-driven rapid. Shifts attention when peripheral cues are uninformative. Turns to salient/task relevant cues
8 of 264
Attentional systems
Corbetta and Shulman 2002
9 of 264
1. Goal directed top-down network (endogenous)
dorsal fronto-parietal network. influenced by knowledge, expectation and current goals
10 of 264
Stimulus-driven, bottom-up network (exogenous)
right ventral fronto-parietal network. Responds to unexpected stimuli
11 of 264
lack of conscious awareness of stimuli presented to the side of space on the opposite side of the brain injury
12 of 264
Subject-centred (egocentric neglect)
little or no conscious awareness of stimuli on the contralateral side of the visual field
13 of 264
Object-centred (allocentric neglect)
lack of conscious awareness of the left side of objects rather than simply the left side of the visual field (regardless of what visual field its in)
14 of 264
a stimulus is presented in the contralateral visual field is not detected when another stimulus is presented at the same time to in the ipsilateral visual field
15 of 264
smallest unit of language that changes the meaning of a spoken signal (bad, bat, bed)
16 of 264
smallest unit of language that actually carries meaning (table, tables, for, listened, unnecessary)
17 of 264
Mental Lexicon
mental dictionary/vocabulary of all words an individual stores in their semantic memory
18 of 264
speech perception
the most important form of auditory perception
19 of 264
Categorical speech
speech sounds on the boundaries of a phoneme as perceived as one or the other phoneme
20 of 264
phonemic context influences the speech sound
21 of 264
The McGurk effect
perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound.
22 of 264
Bottom-up factors
Phonotactic knowledge: we are sensitive to the phonetic rules of our language
23 of 264
Top-down factors (context a knowledge of words)
Lexical cues: sentence context (a door; adore)
24 of 264
Motor theory of speech perception (Liberman, 1960's)
We use the articulatory mechanisms for speech perception, speech perception and speech production rely on the same specialised representation
25 of 264
Trace Model (McClelland and Elman, 1980)
connectionist model of speech perception, takes various sources of information found in speech and integrate them to identify single words. There are individual processing units or nodes at three different levels; features, phonemes and words
26 of 264
connections between levels operate in both directions
27 of 264
there are connections among units or nodes at the same level
28 of 264
Cohort Model
mapping of auditory information onto words that exist in the mental lexicon. The process begins with mapping the first phoneme or segment onto all possible pre-existing words in the mental lexicon
29 of 264
Wernicke's aphasia
fluent speech but incomprehensible; difficulty understanding speech
30 of 264
Broca's aphasia
speech is non-fluent and effortful comprehension is relatively well retained
31 of 264
The three route model of speech perception
Route 1 and 2: familiar words, Route 3: unfamiliar words and non-words
32 of 264
pure word deafness
impaired speech perception for words and non-words, not a hearing deficit, other sounds are usually perceived, speech production, reading and writing is not affected
33 of 264
word meaning deafness
using route 2 predominantly: can repeat familiar words well, but without knowing their meaning --> impaired auditory comprehension, but intact written comprehension = semantic system is intact, but can't be accessed from auditory input
34 of 264
transcortical sensory aphasia
using route 3 primarily or exclusively: repeat words and non-words but without comprehending and understanding meaning. Reading comprehension is also often impaired = semantic system is impaired too
35 of 264
Deep dysphasia
extensive difficulty including speech perception, cannot repeat spoken words or non-words, semantic errors to spoken word repetition; sky instead of cloud. Reading of words and non-words are relatively well-preserved
36 of 264
Stages of speech production
semantic, syntactic, morphological, phonological
37 of 264
speech errors
our errors tend to be systematic --> can gain insight into the cognitive processes involved in speech production
38 of 264
initial letters of two words are switched
39 of 264
Semantic substitution errors
where is my tennis bat? (racquet)
40 of 264
Morpheme exchange errors
he has already trunked two packs
41 of 264
Dell's Model
processing is parallel across the different stages; interactive and flexible
42 of 264
Dell's Model (2)
four levels of activity; semantic (meaning), syntactic (grammatical structure of words in the planned sentence), morphological (basic units of meaning or word forms), phonological (sounds)
43 of 264
Mixed error
the incorrect word is both semantically and phonetically related to the correct word (non-nun-priest)
44 of 264
Exchange errors
because once selected the words activation turns to zero
45 of 264
Anticipatory errors
when a speech sound is made too early (increase with practise and age)
46 of 264
Preservatory erros
sounds of a word are spoken later than they should have been
47 of 264
Levelt's model
processing is serial: feed-forward system from meaning to utterance
48 of 264
word representation in the lexicon that only have a syntactic and semantic but not phonological component
49 of 264
Coltheart's dual route cascade model of reading
more than a single route to the semantic representation of a word
50 of 264
Non-lexical route (route 1)
grapheme-phoneme conversion system
51 of 264
Lexical look-up route (route 2 and 3)
reading non-words only possible through route 1, normally we use all routes when we read
52 of 264
Route 1 only (grapheme to phoneme)
accurate pronunciation of words with regular spellings and non-words, inaccuracies with irregular words; over-regularisations = surface dyslexia
53 of 264
Route 2
Reading accesses the lexicon (stored written representation of a word) and the semantic system (meaning)
54 of 264
Route 3
reading accesses the lexicon but not the semantic system. Using on these: difficulty pronouncing unfamiliar and non-words = phonological dyslexia. difficulty pronouncing unfamiliar and non-words semantic errors (ship reads as boat) = deep dyslexia
55 of 264
experiencing an event; learning new information
56 of 264
consolidation - process of creating LTM trace
57 of 264
free recall (without any cues or help); recognition; involuntary thoughts
58 of 264
Modal model
sequential process, you do not directly encode information into LTM, according to this model, it first must go through STM.
59 of 264
recency effect
these words are remembered because they are still in STM
60 of 264
Primacy effect
these words are remembered because there was an opportunity for rehearsal --> LTM
61 of 264
Working memory model
temporarily holding and manipulating information --> learning, reasoning, comprehending, problem solving. Not just a single unit, we have several components. STM not storage space
62 of 264
Declarative memory (LT)
episodic (memory for specific episodes and details) and semantic (memory for facts and meaning of things)
63 of 264
implicit memory (learning through prior exposure, but without consciously remembering) and procedural memory (memory for skills, including motor skills)
64 of 264
the profound loss of long-term memory in the presence of relatively preserved general cognitive abilities (IQ), inability to remember important events from distance past, mundane events from recent past, inability to recall what happen during the day
65 of 264
anterograde amnesia
inability to form new memories, learn new information
66 of 264
retrograde amnesia
inability to retrieve memories from the past (i.e. prior to brain injury)
67 of 264
it is deeply in the middle temporal lobe
68 of 264
Outside of the hippocampus
will not sit in the brain in isolation, connected to other different structures.
69 of 264
profound anterograde amnesia
no memories since the date of his surgery
70 of 264
Patient HM
lost- profound anterograde amnesia. Retained some retrograde memory loss. retained to learn motor sills
71 of 264
patients with amnesia have largely retained STM abilities
72 of 264
didn't have normal STM but had LTM. demonstrated that STM and LTM are separate systems
73 of 264
Procedural memory - retrograde aspect
premorbid skills are not forgotten
74 of 264
procedural memory - anterograde aspect
it is possible to learn new motor skills in amnesia but without remembering the learning episode itself
75 of 264
implicit learning
implicit learning is intact
76 of 264
intact repetition priming
exposed to something previously then shown something else, (moving closer and closer to what you have been shown) job is to say what you see
77 of 264
semantic memory - retrograde
quite well retained in amnesia. have ability to remember facts and information established prior to brain surgery
78 of 264
Semantic memory anterograde
the ability to form new semantic memories after the onset of amnesia is controversial
79 of 264
Vocabulary tests
what vocabulary has entered domain since injury. would they know what it is? e.g. HM and jacuzzi
80 of 264
famous people test
think of who became famous since the date of the injury and see if the patient knows them
81 of 264
training entirely new information
learning novel word (tell them a new word and check if they are able to track and domain it)
82 of 264
Episodic memory - retrograde
most amnesiacs suffer from some degree of retrograde episodic memory loss
83 of 264
Ribot's law
older (remote) memories are more durable than those acquired recently (recent memories most likely to be lost in amnesia)
84 of 264
Episodic memory anterograde
inability to form new episodic memories is the key deficit in amnesia
85 of 264
Episodic and semantic memory independent systems?
entirely possible to be born and grow up with a non-episodic memory system, due to an early brain injury but to still be making episodic memories and be learning in school as normal
86 of 264
Neuroanatomical theory - developmental amnesia
episodic memory depends on the hippocampus, whereas semantic memory depends on the underlying parahioppocampal cortices
87 of 264
Item memory
old/new items (decide between the items, regard as seen before or never seen before)
88 of 264
source memory
particular feature of the stimuli (e.g. what colour was the item you were shown)
89 of 264
Recollection - more impaired in amnesia
on the basis of retrieving specific contextual details, where and when, details of interaction
90 of 264
on the basis of the perceived strength of the memory trace, but without specific contextual details (confident you have seen this face before but you have no idea when or where)
91 of 264
System consolidation theories
new memories are consolidated via the hippocampus, held there for a while before they become consolidated in the neocortex
92 of 264
multiple trace theory
different types of memories are encoded/consolidated in different locations of the brain. memories change over the lifespan as they are recalled and evaluated --> become stored in different/multiple locations
93 of 264
Reconsolidation theory
each time a memory is recalled and shared with other it becomes reconsolidated, many memory traces are available for the same event memory
94 of 264
dominance or preferential use of one side of the body for a specific task
95 of 264
hemispheric asymmetries
looks superficially symmetrical not as symmetrical as it seems. RH is thought to be larger and heavier than left, the sylvian fissure extends further back on the left side and is less sloped than on the right
96 of 264
Functional lateralisation
does this case differences in functionality across the 2 hemispheres? LH - controls movement of the body and vice versa. corpus collosum - does change between hemispheres. Language strongly left lateralised. Emotional = RH
97 of 264
lack of redundancy/unnecessary duplication, greater flexibility, greater complexity of function
98 of 264
laterality in language processing
left hemisphere dominance for speech and various aspects of language BUT RH dominance for language processing at discourse level; (intent, metaphorical expressions, emotional tone)
99 of 264
laterality in visuospatial ability
RH advantage for visuospatial functions, mental rotation, spatial transformation, right posterior parietal activation: supports spatial transformation necessary for mental rotation. RH recognises facial expressions more quickly
100 of 264
Laterality in attention
LH - focal attention; attention to local specific cues. RH = Global attention; holistic processing
101 of 264
handedness exerts influence in how language is organised in the brain. 94% of right handers have LH speech, 70% of left handers have LH speech. left handers less lateralised
102 of 264
sex exerts some influence on the degree and type of functional lateralisation
103 of 264
gender - spatial ability
7% right handed men and 56% right handed women have RH dominance for spatial ability, women better at recalling object locations/landmarks
104 of 264
gender - language
no convincing evidence for differences in lateralisation
105 of 264
Contemporary views: what is lateralised?
LH preference to interact more exclusively with itself, RH interact in a more intergrative fashion
106 of 264
Callosal agenesis
rage congenital disorder; visual impairments, poor muscle tone, poor motor condition, some cognitive and social difficulties
107 of 264
treatment of intractable epilepsy in the 50's and 60's, corpus callosum is severed --> split brain patients
108 of 264
split brain syndrome
initial confusion and difficulty following complex commands, mutism, good recovery after a few months, normal post surgery intelligence, personality and behaviour
109 of 264
Gazzaniga's hypothesis
LH and RH differ in their approach to information processing LH: interpreter, gives rise to conscious experience RH: accurate record keeper. Processes in an unconscious manner
110 of 264
Corballi's hypothesis
RH: interpreter for visuospatial processing = RH is inherently more holistic
111 of 264
Hallmark 1 - response x visual field interaction
when a stimulus is presented to the right visual field, the patient responds essentially in a normal manner. However when a stimulus is presented to the left visual field, the patient verbally indicates that they saw nothing, yet saw their left hand
112 of 264
Hallmark 2 - hemispheric specialisation
split brain patients show pronounced hemispheric specialisation. LH: superior in language, production, verbal labelling, RH: superior in visual-spatial tasks, causal inference
113 of 264
Hallmark 3 - post hoc confabulation
observed post hoc confabulation to explain one's own behaviour
114 of 264
hallmark 4 - split attention
often argued that attention and consciousness are closely related. Suggests that attention is split in split-brain patients. Object-based and space-based attention are situated in different hemispheres, implying independent attentional centres
115 of 264
hallmark 5 - inability to compare stimuli across the midline
split brain patients seem incapable of comparing stimuli across the midline, irrespective of the type of stimuli
116 of 264
Problem solving
purposeful, goal-directed. Controlled rather than automatic, effortful. Immediate solution is not available. Plan and strategy is required
117 of 264
Well-defined problems
all aspects of the problem solving process are clearly specified
118 of 264
ill-defined problems
underspecified problems
119 of 264
knowledge-rich problems
requires expertise
120 of 264
knowledge-lean problems
does not require expertise
121 of 264
The gestalt approach
reproductive thinking and productive thinking
122 of 264
reproductive thinking
reuse of previous experiences --> solution
123 of 264
productive thinking
novel restructuring of the problem --> solution
124 of 264
insight problem solving assumptions
a mistaken assumption needs to be removed for successful solution, the solution comes suddenly; aha experience
125 of 264
subjective feelings - metacognition
confidence is gradual for non-insight problems, but sudden for insight problems
126 of 264
gobal attention; holistic processing
RH is more associated with insight, distant associations occur in RH
127 of 264
a period of rest in the process of effortful problem solving. Longer breaks associated with higher probabilities of solution. Memory for misleading cues decreased with incubation time --> fixation forgetting
128 of 264
Problem representation/understanding
incorrect problem representation --> forms of rigidity (get stuck in one way of solving a problem called the mental set)
129 of 264
Mental set
a tendency to rely on habits and procedures that were used before (related past experiences we engage in and use before)
130 of 264
functional fixedness
our tendency to view objects in a narrow sense - typical function
131 of 264
Overcoming functional fixedness?
focus on infrequently noticed or new feature, form a solution based on that obscure feature = more focus on parts of objects and how they could be used --> improved insight-based problem solving
132 of 264
cultural handicap
not specific to technologically developed cultures
133 of 264
Representational change theory - Ohlsson
suggests that when we try to solve a problem, we keep trying it, if we experience repeated failure we come to a block. To unblock the situation, we need to engage in some kind of representational change e.g. come to the problem differently
134 of 264
Constraint relaxation
harder to relax the constraint for type b problems, more unusual to change the operator than the value. Lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in processing constraints, patients with LPC damage perform better than controls in type B problems
135 of 264
The GPS model (general problem solver) - Newell and Simon, 1972
step by step progression from an initial to a goal state. breaking down to sub goals.
136 of 264
Problem space
mental representations of the problem itself and each stage of the problem-solving process, its operators and constraints
137 of 264
a set of rules that can be applied systematically to solve certain types of problems e.g. maths formula. Always leads to solution but not always the most efficient, not prevalent in everyday problems
138 of 264
general strategies or rules of thumb that can be applied to a range of problems. "shortcuts" in the problem space
139 of 264
two modes - Kahneman and Tversky
system 1 and system 2
140 of 264
system 1
unconscious (heuristic), automatic, rapid, nonverbal, capacity-free, shared with animals, evolutionarily old
141 of 264
system 2
conscious, controlled, slow, linked to language, capacity-limited, animals don't have, evolutionarily new
142 of 264
Means-end analysis
systematically devising means to reach the subtotals ends/tower of hanoi
143 of 264
hill climbing heuristics
consistently choosing the path that seems to lead most directly to your goal but sometimes the indirect route has greater long-term benefits, need to move backwards in order to move forwards
144 of 264
Planning - problem representation
left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex
145 of 264
planning - plan production
right dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex
146 of 264
planning - plan execution
posterior temporal, inferior-frontal, dorso-lateral premotor cortex
147 of 264
Executive function
describes a set of cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviours. necessary for goal-directed behaviour. Ability to initiate and stop actions, monitor and change behaviour as needed, plan future behaviour when faced
148 of 264
Executive function (2)
with novel tasks and situations. Executive function allows us to anticipate outcomes, adapt to changing situations, and inhibit appropriate behaviour
149 of 264
the homunculus problem
litte man in our mind containing our activities. Problematic = if there is a man conducting us? who is conducting the little man?
150 of 264
Luria: the classical view:
the first neuropsychologist to suggest that the frontal lobes are crucial in regulating human behaviour. Forming plans and acting on these plans.Comparing the result of an action with the original intention
151 of 264
Norman and Shallice (supervisory attentional system)
the frontal lobes program, regulate and verify behaviour and thought
152 of 264
1. contention scheduling
controls routine actions, action schemata are activated above a certain threshold (automatic)
153 of 264
2. SAS
controls non-routine actions - conscious attentional control
154 of 264
How to test executive function?
N-back task, digit backwards task, go/no-go task
155 of 264
Rule shifting/cognitive flexibility: Wisconsin card sorting task
previously correct rule must be inhibited, flexibility is necessary to change the rule. Sort cards following criterion, feedback after each trial. Classification changes without warning
156 of 264
Planning (action sequences)
tower of london task, similar to tower of hanoi. Move away from the goal temporarily. Testing planning for action sequences
157 of 264
Verbal fluency
produce as many words as you can from a given category
158 of 264
Semantic fluency
words that blind in the category animals
159 of 264
Phonemic fluency
words beginning with the letter G. shifts between categories. They struggle with shifts and get stuck on one category
160 of 264
symptoms of frontal lobe lesions
1. motor (voluntary motor behaviour) 2. sensory/perceptual 3. cognitive; planning/initiating/strategy formation/reasoning/decision making, attention, memory (encoding and retrieval), WM, Language use (pragmatics)
161 of 264
Pseudopsychopathy (bilateral or right frontal damage)
immature behaviour, lack of tact and restraint, impolite language
162 of 264
Pseudodepression (left frontal damage)
apathy and indifference, loss of initiative, little or no verbal output reduced overt emotion
163 of 264
SAS and frontal injury
the SAS is impaired --> contention scheduling is unmodulated. Unable to inhibit irrelevant input --> schema is irrelevant to goals
164 of 264
Utilisation behaviour
tendance to pick up and use objects in close proximity (triggered by stimuli in environment)
165 of 264
Multiple errands test - Shallice and Burgess (8 simple tasks)
buy a lettuce, be somewhere in 15 mins, record information e.g. price of tomatoes. Rules; spend as little as possible, take as little time as possible, only enter shop when wanting to buy something.
166 of 264
--> inefficient actions, --> rule breaks. Problem with activating intentions when a relevant situation occurs. Not a problem of intention or memory, but a problem with processes that help realise intentions and goals
167 of 264
Rehabilitation: goal management training
• Interactive program designed to improve the organisation of goals and ability to achieve them for people experienced executive function impairement.
168 of 264
Theory of mind
our ability to infer the intentions and mental states of others --> behaviour. There is some evidence that the frontal cortex is involved in this ability. Right frontal injury might result in impaired ToM whilst reasoning is unaffected.
169 of 264
frontal lobe patients
generally poorer at understanding other people's point of view and detecting deception
170 of 264
Memory error defined as the production of fabricated, distorted or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.
171 of 264
Emotion and cognition
traditionally cognitive psychology did not consider emotion
172 of 264
attention, memory, decision making
173 of 264
appraisal theories, emotion regulation, cognitive biases
174 of 264
broad concept to cover a wide range of experiences including emotions, moods and feelings
175 of 264
brief but intense experiences
176 of 264
prolonged states of emotion
177 of 264
what gives rise to emotion?
1. peripheral theories (bottom-up) 2. cognitive appraisal theories (top-down)
178 of 264
peripheral theories (bottom-up)
physiological changes in the body -> emotion -> appraisal/evaluation of the situation
179 of 264
cognitive appraisal theories (top-down)
appraisal/evaluation of the situation -> emotion -> physiological changes in the body
180 of 264
James lang theory of emotion
physiological arousal instigates the experience of emotion, we experience fear because we are running away
181 of 264
james lang
stimulus (visual or auditory cortex) --> bodily changes ANS and skeletal --> interpretation of changes by the context; this is the emotion
182 of 264
Cannon-bard theory
stimulus (visual or auditory cortex) -thalamus to cortex-thalamus to hypothalamus-> conscious experience of emotion, physiological changes
183 of 264
Schacter-Singer theory of emotion - physiology and emotional experience are not independent
stimulus --> awareness of physiological arousal and physiological changes - interpretation of arousal as an emotion - physiological changes -thalamus to cortex-> (awareness)
184 of 264
Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis
gut instinct -> orinate towards most advantageous solutions -> appropriate goal-directed behaviour <--> patients with amygdala/VMPFC/OFC lesion
185 of 264
LeDoux: two emotional pathways
1. fast acting thalamus-amygdala circuit - allows rapid responses to threatening situations, bypasses the cortex. 2. slow-acting thalamus-cortex-amygdala circuit - allows detailed analysis of the emotional sig. of the situation
186 of 264
are emotions cognitive?
187 of 264
affective primary hypothesis
188 of 264
1. affective judgments are made without conscious information processing
mere exposure effect: stimuli that is presented previously (below the level of conscious awareness) has an effect on preference/behaviour even though stimuli is not consciously available
189 of 264
2. affective qualities of stimuli are processed faster than other qualities
liking ratings were only affected if primes were presented for 4ms and not 1s, femininity ratings were only affected if primes were presented for 1s and not 4ms
190 of 264
affective responses can occur as very rapid responses without conscious awareness of any cognitive processing, we are talking about very low-level emotional responses here (preferences, fear) and not emotions such as shame or jealousy
191 of 264
Cognitive appraisal matters
192 of 264
1. primary appraisals
appraisal of the situation e.g. positive, negative, stressful, or irrelevant to wellbeing
193 of 264
2. secondary appraisals
appraisal of the resources available to cope with the situation
194 of 264
3. reappraisal
the situation and coping strategies are monitored, and appraisals modified if necessary
195 of 264
Smith and Lazarus
the pattern of 6 appraisal components elicit specific emotions = appraisal profiles
196 of 264
1. motivational relevance (is the situation related to personal commitments?) 2. motivational congruence (is the situation consistent with my individual goals?)
197 of 264
1. accountability (who deserved the credit or blame?), 2. problem-focused coping potential (can i resolve the situation), 3. emotion-focused coping potential (can i handle the situation psychologically) 4. future expectancy (will it change?)
198 of 264
individual differences
e.g. locus of control, appraisals are important but the appraisal determinants of emotions may be more flexible --> the same emotion can result from several different appraisal combinations
199 of 264
do appraisals cause emotional states most recent research findings are correlational
200 of 264
Emotion regulation
emotion generation (spontaneous appraisal) -> emotion regulation (reappraisal) the management and control of emotional states. deliberate and effortful process seeks to override spontaneous emotional responses
201 of 264
emotion regulation strategies
reappraisal, distancing, repeated emotional events -> implicit processes
202 of 264
appraisal is useful in stressful situation when they are uncontrollable, but they are useless in controllable stress
203 of 264
mood congruity
learning and memory of emotional material is best if the material has the same affective value as the learners mood state
204 of 264
mood-state-dependant memory retrieval
memory retrieval is better if mood states at retrieval match the mood state at learning
205 of 264
thought congruity
our free associations, judgements and thoughts are often congruent with our mood
206 of 264
Becks negative triad
negative views about the world --> negative views about oneself --> negative views about the future
207 of 264
attentional bias
selective attention to threat-related stimuli/negative stimuli
208 of 264
attentional engagement
209 of 264
attentional disengagement
210 of 264
Emotional stroop task
What colour is the word written in, focus on the colour not the word. Most people respond faster and more accurately to the congruent trials (when word matches the colour).
211 of 264
Dot probe task
shorter response latencies for anxiety provoking words in anxious patients and individuals with trait anxiety. trait anxious individuals only show attentional bias when they are close to a stressful event
212 of 264
interpretive bias
tendency to interpret ambitious stimuli and situations in a threatening fashion/or negatively
213 of 264
explicit memory bias
tendency to retrieve mostly negative and unpleasant memories rather than neutral and positive ones
214 of 264
Learning strategies - mnemonics
using mental imagery, narrative technique, concept maps/mind maps
215 of 264
the process
encoding -> storage -> retrieval (encoding -> retrieval -> encoding ect.)
216 of 264
spaced repetition
likely to lead to a more varied representation --> more searchable/multiple retrieval cues (the longer the spacing the longer you remember)
217 of 264
if you fail to remember a word, it should be presented again after a short delay, if you are correct it should presented (tested) after a longer delay
218 of 264
expanding retrieval
distributed practise + generation effect together (spaced practise leads to less forgetting)
219 of 264
distribution practise is more efficient in terms of learning and retention
BUT efficiency and convenience are not the same
220 of 264
maintenance rehearsal
internal repetition (maintenance rehearsal) chances long-term recognition but not recall
221 of 264
elaborative rehearsal
some form of elaboration material is necessary in order to enhance recall
222 of 264
Levels of processing (LOP)
emphasis on processing; the type of processing determines whether information is remembered long-term. Deep (e.g. semantic encoding) is more efficient than superficial (e.g. phonological) encoding. Deep encoding establishes multiple retrieval routes
223 of 264
self-reference effect
the self serves as a basis for elaboration and organisation = we remember information better if we can relate to it
224 of 264
organisation as elaboration
word lists are better remembered if they are organised by semantic categories
225 of 264
retrieval cues are crucial to remembering the encoding specificity principle. retrieval of info is best if cues that were present at encoding are also present at retrieval
226 of 264
spatio-temporal context
when, where?
227 of 264
other contextual aspects
physical state, mood, cognitive context (context can be deliberately reinstated to retrieve a memory or can influence memory incidentally)
228 of 264
memory is context dependant
environmental context - returning to the original environment helps reinstate the memory that you struggle to access
229 of 264
memory is state-dependant
internal environment - reinstating the internal environment (drugs, alcohol) helps retrieve memories that were encoded in the same state. mood states as context
230 of 264
testing beneficial?
repeated retrieval practise leads to effective, more varied cues. Retrieval failures encourage learners to seek effective, alternative cues. Testing produces desirable difficulties and prevents overconfidence
231 of 264
your knowledge, understanding and control of your own cognitive processes a higher order cognitive function. influences how you select and make use of memory strategies
232 of 264
Nelson and Narens
2 key components of metacognition - object level (actual task you are performing) flow of info, monitor getting along with task, leads to meta level, thinking about where you at.
233 of 264
measure meta memory
global judgements of learning (JOLs) and individuals JOLs
234 of 264
global jol
how many do you think you will be able to recall in 1 hour
235 of 264
individual jol
do you think you will recall mountain/unicorn/comprehension
236 of 264
foresight bias
people tend to be overconfident in global JOLs but more accurate with individual JOLS
237 of 264
how to measure meta memory
if the task is easy and time is not limited more time is allocated on difficult items. more time is unnecessarily spent on items already known, not enough on difficult material
238 of 264
under time pressure
most time is spent on easy material, expertise means you will spend more time on challenging material
239 of 264
the feeling of knowing phenomenon (FOK)
the subjective feeling of knowing the answer but without being able to recall it
240 of 264
the tip of the tongue phenomenon (TOT)
a subjectively more extreme version of the above
241 of 264
typical research paradigm
ask ppt to recall the info, if indicate TOT as if they would be able to recall if additional cue is given (letter cue), check how accurate they were in their prediction of TOT
242 of 264
chronological age
number of years since birth
243 of 264
biological age
a change in health status
244 of 264
social age
the social role an individual takes on or is focused into. 'normative events' e.g. parenting, grand-parenting, death of spouse
245 of 264
psychological age
the functional sensory and intellectual capacities
246 of 264
healthy cognitive ageing
decline in cog functioning is normal part of ageing. Aspects of memory and executive function appear to be most clearly affected
247 of 264
cohort effect
people born at different time periods different cognitively as a result of historic changes in diet, education and other social factors
248 of 264
The flynn effect
IQ test scores worldwide have been increasing over time; younger generations perform better than older generations. This does not mean that cognitive changes in old age don’t exist or that they are not measurable,
249 of 264
recall is impaired in OA, typically more difficult than recognition. Recall can be made easier by using cues
250 of 264
recognition is not or less impaired. Can be difficult with dividing attention.
251 of 264
recollection vs familiarity
OA typically respond with fewer R responses, OA overly reliant on familiarity when making recognition decisions
252 of 264
Source memory
the ability to retrieve the context or the source of information that was previously presented. OA sig poorer at correctly reporting who presented a certain piece of information to them
253 of 264
false fame effect
OA tend to attribute fame to non-famous but highly familiar stimulus due to presentation in an experimental setting
254 of 264
semantic memory
preserved, vocal well preserved, autobiographical facts preserved
255 of 264
STM storage not typically impaired e.g. digit forward task is normal but digit backward span task is impaired (difficulties with holding and manipulating information at the same time)
256 of 264
OA tend to be overconfident about their memory in experimental memory tasks but no completely inaccurate in their perditions as to what they will and will not be able to remember (item-based JOLs and FOKs)
257 of 264
inhibition theory
OA have difficulty inhibiting irrelevant information when retrieving from memory
258 of 264
condition with a gradual yet relentless loss of cognitive function due to a progressive degeneration of neurons
259 of 264
Alzheimer's warning signs
memory loss affects job skills, difficulty performing familiar tasks, problems with language, disorientation to time and place, poor or decreased judgement, problems with abstract thinking, misplacing things, changes in mood/behaviour/personality
260 of 264
memory impairment with at least two other deficits including problems of language, action control, perception, executive function
261 of 264
memory deficits in AD
substantial episodic memory deficit, semantic declines as disease progresses, sig working memory deficits
262 of 264
autobiographical memory
different kinds of stored knowledge pertaining to the self, including personal episodes and facts, older memories are generally better preserved than recent memories in AD
263 of 264
4 categories of identity
attributes, social identities, evaluative descriptions, physical descriptions. AD generate fewer responses on test, higher percentage of evaluative responses rather than social identities
264 of 264

Other cards in this set

Card 2


unable to link percepts to meaning. Impairment in recognition or assigning meaning to a stimulus that is accurately perceived and not associated with a generalised deficit in intelligence, memory, language or attention


Associative Agnosia

Card 3


a condition mostly caused by brain damage in which there is a severe impairment in face recognition but less impairment of object recognition; also known as face blindness


Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4


high load tasks --> less distraction (reduces attentional control) --> makes us more distractible. Have to control self cognitively


Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5


(working memory demands) high load tasks --> more distraction


Preview of the back of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Psychology resources:

See all Psychology resources »See all Visual System resources »