Cognitive Psychology

Apperceptive Agnosia
can usually describe individual elements of an object. They can see objects form and features, but they seem unable to "bind" individual components together into a meaningful whole
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Associative Agnosia
unable to link percepts to meaning. Impairment in recognition or assigning meaning to a stimulus that is accurately perceived and not associated with a generalised deficit in intelligence, memory, language or attention
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Prosopagnosia
a condition mostly caused by brain damage in which there is a severe impairment in face recognition but less impairment of object recognition; also known as face blindness
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Perceptual load
high load tasks --> less distraction (reduces attentional control) --> makes us more distractible. Have to control self cognitively
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Cognitive Load
(working memory demands) high load tasks --> more distraction
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Attentional Systems
Posner 1980
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Endogenous System
Controlled by the individual's and expectations; voluntary, goal-directed, slow, conscious process
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Exogenous system
involuntary, stimulus-driven rapid. Shifts attention when peripheral cues are uninformative. Turns to salient/task relevant cues
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Attentional systems
Corbetta and Shulman 2002
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1. Goal directed top-down network (endogenous)
dorsal fronto-parietal network. influenced by knowledge, expectation and current goals
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Stimulus-driven, bottom-up network (exogenous)
right ventral fronto-parietal network. Responds to unexpected stimuli
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NEGLECT
lack of conscious awareness of stimuli presented to the side of space on the opposite side of the brain injury
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Subject-centred (egocentric neglect)
little or no conscious awareness of stimuli on the contralateral side of the visual field
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Object-centred (allocentric neglect)
lack of conscious awareness of the left side of objects rather than simply the left side of the visual field (regardless of what visual field its in)
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Extinction
a stimulus is presented in the contralateral visual field is not detected when another stimulus is presented at the same time to in the ipsilateral visual field
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Phoneme
smallest unit of language that changes the meaning of a spoken signal (bad, bat, bed)
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Morpheme
smallest unit of language that actually carries meaning (table, tables, for, listened, unnecessary)
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Mental Lexicon
mental dictionary/vocabulary of all words an individual stores in their semantic memory
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speech perception
the most important form of auditory perception
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Categorical speech
speech sounds on the boundaries of a phoneme as perceived as one or the other phoneme
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Coarticulation
phonemic context influences the speech sound
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The McGurk effect
perceptual phenomenon that demonstrates an interaction between hearing and vision in speech perception. The auditory component of one sound is paired with the visual component of another sound.
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Bottom-up factors
Phonotactic knowledge: we are sensitive to the phonetic rules of our language
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Top-down factors (context a knowledge of words)
Lexical cues: sentence context (a door; adore)
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Motor theory of speech perception (Liberman, 1960's)
We use the articulatory mechanisms for speech perception, speech perception and speech production rely on the same specialised representation
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Trace Model (McClelland and Elman, 1980)
connectionist model of speech perception, takes various sources of information found in speech and integrate them to identify single words. There are individual processing units or nodes at three different levels; features, phonemes and words
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Facilitatory
connections between levels operate in both directions
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inhibitory
there are connections among units or nodes at the same level
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Cohort Model
mapping of auditory information onto words that exist in the mental lexicon. The process begins with mapping the first phoneme or segment onto all possible pre-existing words in the mental lexicon
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Wernicke's aphasia
fluent speech but incomprehensible; difficulty understanding speech
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Broca's aphasia
speech is non-fluent and effortful comprehension is relatively well retained
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The three route model of speech perception
Route 1 and 2: familiar words, Route 3: unfamiliar words and non-words
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pure word deafness
impaired speech perception for words and non-words, not a hearing deficit, other sounds are usually perceived, speech production, reading and writing is not affected
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word meaning deafness
using route 2 predominantly: can repeat familiar words well, but without knowing their meaning --> impaired auditory comprehension, but intact written comprehension = semantic system is intact, but can't be accessed from auditory input
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transcortical sensory aphasia
using route 3 primarily or exclusively: repeat words and non-words but without comprehending and understanding meaning. Reading comprehension is also often impaired = semantic system is impaired too
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Deep dysphasia
extensive difficulty including speech perception, cannot repeat spoken words or non-words, semantic errors to spoken word repetition; sky instead of cloud. Reading of words and non-words are relatively well-preserved
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Stages of speech production
semantic, syntactic, morphological, phonological
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speech errors
our errors tend to be systematic --> can gain insight into the cognitive processes involved in speech production
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Spoonerism
initial letters of two words are switched
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Semantic substitution errors
where is my tennis bat? (racquet)
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Morpheme exchange errors
he has already trunked two packs
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Dell's Model
processing is parallel across the different stages; interactive and flexible
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Dell's Model (2)
four levels of activity; semantic (meaning), syntactic (grammatical structure of words in the planned sentence), morphological (basic units of meaning or word forms), phonological (sounds)
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Mixed error
the incorrect word is both semantically and phonetically related to the correct word (non-nun-priest)
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Exchange errors
because once selected the words activation turns to zero
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Anticipatory errors
when a speech sound is made too early (increase with practise and age)
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Preservatory erros
sounds of a word are spoken later than they should have been
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Levelt's model
processing is serial: feed-forward system from meaning to utterance
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Lemma
word representation in the lexicon that only have a syntactic and semantic but not phonological component
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Coltheart's dual route cascade model of reading
more than a single route to the semantic representation of a word
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Non-lexical route (route 1)
grapheme-phoneme conversion system
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Lexical look-up route (route 2 and 3)
reading non-words only possible through route 1, normally we use all routes when we read
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Route 1 only (grapheme to phoneme)
accurate pronunciation of words with regular spellings and non-words, inaccuracies with irregular words; over-regularisations = surface dyslexia
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Route 2
Reading accesses the lexicon (stored written representation of a word) and the semantic system (meaning)
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Route 3
reading accesses the lexicon but not the semantic system. Using on these: difficulty pronouncing unfamiliar and non-words = phonological dyslexia. difficulty pronouncing unfamiliar and non-words semantic errors (ship reads as boat) = deep dyslexia
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Encoding
experiencing an event; learning new information
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Storage
consolidation - process of creating LTM trace
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retrieval
free recall (without any cues or help); recognition; involuntary thoughts
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Modal model
sequential process, you do not directly encode information into LTM, according to this model, it first must go through STM.
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recency effect
these words are remembered because they are still in STM
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Primacy effect
these words are remembered because there was an opportunity for rehearsal --> LTM
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Working memory model
temporarily holding and manipulating information --> learning, reasoning, comprehending, problem solving. Not just a single unit, we have several components. STM not storage space
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Declarative memory (LT)
episodic (memory for specific episodes and details) and semantic (memory for facts and meaning of things)
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non-declarative
implicit memory (learning through prior exposure, but without consciously remembering) and procedural memory (memory for skills, including motor skills)
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Amnesia
the profound loss of long-term memory in the presence of relatively preserved general cognitive abilities (IQ), inability to remember important events from distance past, mundane events from recent past, inability to recall what happen during the day
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anterograde amnesia
inability to form new memories, learn new information
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retrograde amnesia
inability to retrieve memories from the past (i.e. prior to brain injury)
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Hippocampus
it is deeply in the middle temporal lobe
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Outside of the hippocampus
will not sit in the brain in isolation, connected to other different structures.
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profound anterograde amnesia
no memories since the date of his surgery
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Patient HM
lost- profound anterograde amnesia. Retained some retrograde memory loss. retained to learn motor sills
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STM vs LTM
patients with amnesia have largely retained STM abilities
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KF
didn't have normal STM but had LTM. demonstrated that STM and LTM are separate systems
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Procedural memory - retrograde aspect
premorbid skills are not forgotten
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procedural memory - anterograde aspect
it is possible to learn new motor skills in amnesia but without remembering the learning episode itself
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implicit learning
implicit learning is intact
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intact repetition priming
exposed to something previously then shown something else, (moving closer and closer to what you have been shown) job is to say what you see
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semantic memory - retrograde
quite well retained in amnesia. have ability to remember facts and information established prior to brain surgery
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Semantic memory anterograde
the ability to form new semantic memories after the onset of amnesia is controversial
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Vocabulary tests
what vocabulary has entered domain since injury. would they know what it is? e.g. HM and jacuzzi
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famous people test
think of who became famous since the date of the injury and see if the patient knows them
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training entirely new information
learning novel word (tell them a new word and check if they are able to track and domain it)
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Episodic memory - retrograde
most amnesiacs suffer from some degree of retrograde episodic memory loss
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Ribot's law
older (remote) memories are more durable than those acquired recently (recent memories most likely to be lost in amnesia)
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Episodic memory anterograde
inability to form new episodic memories is the key deficit in amnesia
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Episodic and semantic memory independent systems?
entirely possible to be born and grow up with a non-episodic memory system, due to an early brain injury but to still be making episodic memories and be learning in school as normal
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Neuroanatomical theory - developmental amnesia
episodic memory depends on the hippocampus, whereas semantic memory depends on the underlying parahioppocampal cortices
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Item memory
old/new items (decide between the items, regard as seen before or never seen before)
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source memory
particular feature of the stimuli (e.g. what colour was the item you were shown)
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Recollection - more impaired in amnesia
on the basis of retrieving specific contextual details, where and when, details of interaction
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familiarity
on the basis of the perceived strength of the memory trace, but without specific contextual details (confident you have seen this face before but you have no idea when or where)
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System consolidation theories
new memories are consolidated via the hippocampus, held there for a while before they become consolidated in the neocortex
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multiple trace theory
different types of memories are encoded/consolidated in different locations of the brain. memories change over the lifespan as they are recalled and evaluated --> become stored in different/multiple locations
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Reconsolidation theory
each time a memory is recalled and shared with other it becomes reconsolidated, many memory traces are available for the same event memory
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Lateralisation/laterality
dominance or preferential use of one side of the body for a specific task
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hemispheric asymmetries
looks superficially symmetrical not as symmetrical as it seems. RH is thought to be larger and heavier than left, the sylvian fissure extends further back on the left side and is less sloped than on the right
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Functional lateralisation
does this case differences in functionality across the 2 hemispheres? LH - controls movement of the body and vice versa. corpus collosum - does change between hemispheres. Language strongly left lateralised. Emotional = RH
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Why?
lack of redundancy/unnecessary duplication, greater flexibility, greater complexity of function
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laterality in language processing
left hemisphere dominance for speech and various aspects of language BUT RH dominance for language processing at discourse level; (intent, metaphorical expressions, emotional tone)
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laterality in visuospatial ability
RH advantage for visuospatial functions, mental rotation, spatial transformation, right posterior parietal activation: supports spatial transformation necessary for mental rotation. RH recognises facial expressions more quickly
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Laterality in attention
LH - focal attention; attention to local specific cues. RH = Global attention; holistic processing
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Handedness
handedness exerts influence in how language is organised in the brain. 94% of right handers have LH speech, 70% of left handers have LH speech. left handers less lateralised
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Gender
sex exerts some influence on the degree and type of functional lateralisation
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gender - spatial ability
7% right handed men and 56% right handed women have RH dominance for spatial ability, women better at recalling object locations/landmarks
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gender - language
no convincing evidence for differences in lateralisation
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Contemporary views: what is lateralised?
LH preference to interact more exclusively with itself, RH interact in a more intergrative fashion
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Callosal agenesis
rage congenital disorder; visual impairments, poor muscle tone, poor motor condition, some cognitive and social difficulties
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Commissurotomy
treatment of intractable epilepsy in the 50's and 60's, corpus callosum is severed --> split brain patients
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split brain syndrome
initial confusion and difficulty following complex commands, mutism, good recovery after a few months, normal post surgery intelligence, personality and behaviour
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Gazzaniga's hypothesis
LH and RH differ in their approach to information processing LH: interpreter, gives rise to conscious experience RH: accurate record keeper. Processes in an unconscious manner
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Corballi's hypothesis
RH: interpreter for visuospatial processing = RH is inherently more holistic
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Hallmark 1 - response x visual field interaction
when a stimulus is presented to the right visual field, the patient responds essentially in a normal manner. However when a stimulus is presented to the left visual field, the patient verbally indicates that they saw nothing, yet saw their left hand
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Hallmark 2 - hemispheric specialisation
split brain patients show pronounced hemispheric specialisation. LH: superior in language, production, verbal labelling, RH: superior in visual-spatial tasks, causal inference
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Hallmark 3 - post hoc confabulation
observed post hoc confabulation to explain one's own behaviour
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hallmark 4 - split attention
often argued that attention and consciousness are closely related. Suggests that attention is split in split-brain patients. Object-based and space-based attention are situated in different hemispheres, implying independent attentional centres
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hallmark 5 - inability to compare stimuli across the midline
split brain patients seem incapable of comparing stimuli across the midline, irrespective of the type of stimuli
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Problem solving
purposeful, goal-directed. Controlled rather than automatic, effortful. Immediate solution is not available. Plan and strategy is required
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Well-defined problems
all aspects of the problem solving process are clearly specified
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ill-defined problems
underspecified problems
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knowledge-rich problems
requires expertise
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knowledge-lean problems
does not require expertise
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The gestalt approach
reproductive thinking and productive thinking
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reproductive thinking
reuse of previous experiences --> solution
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productive thinking
novel restructuring of the problem --> solution
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insight problem solving assumptions
a mistaken assumption needs to be removed for successful solution, the solution comes suddenly; aha experience
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subjective feelings - metacognition
confidence is gradual for non-insight problems, but sudden for insight problems
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gobal attention; holistic processing
RH is more associated with insight, distant associations occur in RH
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Incubation
a period of rest in the process of effortful problem solving. Longer breaks associated with higher probabilities of solution. Memory for misleading cues decreased with incubation time --> fixation forgetting
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Problem representation/understanding
incorrect problem representation --> forms of rigidity (get stuck in one way of solving a problem called the mental set)
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Mental set
a tendency to rely on habits and procedures that were used before (related past experiences we engage in and use before)
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functional fixedness
our tendency to view objects in a narrow sense - typical function
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Overcoming functional fixedness?
focus on infrequently noticed or new feature, form a solution based on that obscure feature = more focus on parts of objects and how they could be used --> improved insight-based problem solving
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cultural handicap
not specific to technologically developed cultures
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Representational change theory - Ohlsson
suggests that when we try to solve a problem, we keep trying it, if we experience repeated failure we come to a block. To unblock the situation, we need to engage in some kind of representational change e.g. come to the problem differently
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Constraint relaxation
harder to relax the constraint for type b problems, more unusual to change the operator than the value. Lateral prefrontal cortex is involved in processing constraints, patients with LPC damage perform better than controls in type B problems
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The GPS model (general problem solver) - Newell and Simon, 1972
step by step progression from an initial to a goal state. breaking down to sub goals.
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Problem space
mental representations of the problem itself and each stage of the problem-solving process, its operators and constraints
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Algorithms
a set of rules that can be applied systematically to solve certain types of problems e.g. maths formula. Always leads to solution but not always the most efficient, not prevalent in everyday problems
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Heuristics
general strategies or rules of thumb that can be applied to a range of problems. "shortcuts" in the problem space
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two modes - Kahneman and Tversky
system 1 and system 2
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system 1
unconscious (heuristic), automatic, rapid, nonverbal, capacity-free, shared with animals, evolutionarily old
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system 2
conscious, controlled, slow, linked to language, capacity-limited, animals don't have, evolutionarily new
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Means-end analysis
systematically devising means to reach the subtotals ends/tower of hanoi
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hill climbing heuristics
consistently choosing the path that seems to lead most directly to your goal but sometimes the indirect route has greater long-term benefits, need to move backwards in order to move forwards
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Planning - problem representation
left dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex
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planning - plan production
right dorso-lateral prefrontal cortex
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planning - plan execution
posterior temporal, inferior-frontal, dorso-lateral premotor cortex
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Executive function
describes a set of cognitive abilities that control and regulate other abilities and behaviours. necessary for goal-directed behaviour. Ability to initiate and stop actions, monitor and change behaviour as needed, plan future behaviour when faced
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Executive function (2)
with novel tasks and situations. Executive function allows us to anticipate outcomes, adapt to changing situations, and inhibit appropriate behaviour
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the homunculus problem
litte man in our mind containing our activities. Problematic = if there is a man conducting us? who is conducting the little man?
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Luria: the classical view:
the first neuropsychologist to suggest that the frontal lobes are crucial in regulating human behaviour. Forming plans and acting on these plans.Comparing the result of an action with the original intention
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Norman and Shallice (supervisory attentional system)
the frontal lobes program, regulate and verify behaviour and thought
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1. contention scheduling
controls routine actions, action schemata are activated above a certain threshold (automatic)
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2. SAS
controls non-routine actions - conscious attentional control
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How to test executive function?
N-back task, digit backwards task, go/no-go task
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Rule shifting/cognitive flexibility: Wisconsin card sorting task
previously correct rule must be inhibited, flexibility is necessary to change the rule. Sort cards following criterion, feedback after each trial. Classification changes without warning
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Planning (action sequences)
tower of london task, similar to tower of hanoi. Move away from the goal temporarily. Testing planning for action sequences
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Verbal fluency
produce as many words as you can from a given category
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Semantic fluency
words that blind in the category animals
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Phonemic fluency
words beginning with the letter G. shifts between categories. They struggle with shifts and get stuck on one category
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symptoms of frontal lobe lesions
1. motor (voluntary motor behaviour) 2. sensory/perceptual 3. cognitive; planning/initiating/strategy formation/reasoning/decision making, attention, memory (encoding and retrieval), WM, Language use (pragmatics)
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Pseudopsychopathy (bilateral or right frontal damage)
immature behaviour, lack of tact and restraint, impolite language
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Pseudodepression (left frontal damage)
apathy and indifference, loss of initiative, little or no verbal output reduced overt emotion
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SAS and frontal injury
the SAS is impaired --> contention scheduling is unmodulated. Unable to inhibit irrelevant input --> schema is irrelevant to goals
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Utilisation behaviour
tendance to pick up and use objects in close proximity (triggered by stimuli in environment)
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Multiple errands test - Shallice and Burgess (8 simple tasks)
buy a lettuce, be somewhere in 15 mins, record information e.g. price of tomatoes. Rules; spend as little as possible, take as little time as possible, only enter shop when wanting to buy something.
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Part2
--> inefficient actions, --> rule breaks. Problem with activating intentions when a relevant situation occurs. Not a problem of intention or memory, but a problem with processes that help realise intentions and goals
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Rehabilitation: goal management training
• Interactive program designed to improve the organisation of goals and ability to achieve them for people experienced executive function impairement.
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Theory of mind
our ability to infer the intentions and mental states of others --> behaviour. There is some evidence that the frontal cortex is involved in this ability. Right frontal injury might result in impaired ToM whilst reasoning is unaffected.
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frontal lobe patients
generally poorer at understanding other people's point of view and detecting deception
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Confabulation
Memory error defined as the production of fabricated, distorted or misinterpreted memories about oneself or the world, without the conscious intention to deceive.
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Emotion and cognition
traditionally cognitive psychology did not consider emotion
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Cognition
attention, memory, decision making
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emotion
appraisal theories, emotion regulation, cognitive biases
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affect
broad concept to cover a wide range of experiences including emotions, moods and feelings
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emotion
brief but intense experiences
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mood
prolonged states of emotion
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what gives rise to emotion?
1. peripheral theories (bottom-up) 2. cognitive appraisal theories (top-down)
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peripheral theories (bottom-up)
physiological changes in the body -> emotion -> appraisal/evaluation of the situation
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cognitive appraisal theories (top-down)
appraisal/evaluation of the situation -> emotion -> physiological changes in the body
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James lang theory of emotion
physiological arousal instigates the experience of emotion, we experience fear because we are running away
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james lang
stimulus (visual or auditory cortex) --> bodily changes ANS and skeletal --> interpretation of changes by the context; this is the emotion
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Cannon-bard theory
stimulus (visual or auditory cortex) -thalamus to cortex-thalamus to hypothalamus-> conscious experience of emotion, physiological changes
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Schacter-Singer theory of emotion - physiology and emotional experience are not independent
stimulus --> awareness of physiological arousal and physiological changes - interpretation of arousal as an emotion - physiological changes -thalamus to cortex-> (awareness)
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Damasio's somatic marker hypothesis
gut instinct -> orinate towards most advantageous solutions -> appropriate goal-directed behaviour <--> patients with amygdala/VMPFC/OFC lesion
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LeDoux: two emotional pathways
1. fast acting thalamus-amygdala circuit - allows rapid responses to threatening situations, bypasses the cortex. 2. slow-acting thalamus-cortex-amygdala circuit - allows detailed analysis of the emotional sig. of the situation
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are emotions cognitive?
YES or NO
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No
affective primary hypothesis
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1. affective judgments are made without conscious information processing
mere exposure effect: stimuli that is presented previously (below the level of conscious awareness) has an effect on preference/behaviour even though stimuli is not consciously available
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2. affective qualities of stimuli are processed faster than other qualities
liking ratings were only affected if primes were presented for 4ms and not 1s, femininity ratings were only affected if primes were presented for 1s and not 4ms
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???
affective responses can occur as very rapid responses without conscious awareness of any cognitive processing, we are talking about very low-level emotional responses here (preferences, fear) and not emotions such as shame or jealousy
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YES
Cognitive appraisal matters
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1. primary appraisals
appraisal of the situation e.g. positive, negative, stressful, or irrelevant to wellbeing
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2. secondary appraisals
appraisal of the resources available to cope with the situation
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3. reappraisal
the situation and coping strategies are monitored, and appraisals modified if necessary
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Smith and Lazarus
the pattern of 6 appraisal components elicit specific emotions = appraisal profiles
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Primary
1. motivational relevance (is the situation related to personal commitments?) 2. motivational congruence (is the situation consistent with my individual goals?)
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Secondary
1. accountability (who deserved the credit or blame?), 2. problem-focused coping potential (can i resolve the situation), 3. emotion-focused coping potential (can i handle the situation psychologically) 4. future expectancy (will it change?)
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individual differences
e.g. locus of control, appraisals are important but the appraisal determinants of emotions may be more flexible --> the same emotion can result from several different appraisal combinations
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Causality
do appraisals cause emotional states most recent research findings are correlational
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Emotion regulation
emotion generation (spontaneous appraisal) -> emotion regulation (reappraisal) the management and control of emotional states. deliberate and effortful process seeks to override spontaneous emotional responses
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emotion regulation strategies
reappraisal, distancing, repeated emotional events -> implicit processes
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appraisal
appraisal is useful in stressful situation when they are uncontrollable, but they are useless in controllable stress
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mood congruity
learning and memory of emotional material is best if the material has the same affective value as the learners mood state
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mood-state-dependant memory retrieval
memory retrieval is better if mood states at retrieval match the mood state at learning
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thought congruity
our free associations, judgements and thoughts are often congruent with our mood
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Becks negative triad
negative views about the world --> negative views about oneself --> negative views about the future
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attentional bias
selective attention to threat-related stimuli/negative stimuli
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attentional engagement
automatic
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attentional disengagement
controlled
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Emotional stroop task
What colour is the word written in, focus on the colour not the word. Most people respond faster and more accurately to the congruent trials (when word matches the colour).
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Dot probe task
shorter response latencies for anxiety provoking words in anxious patients and individuals with trait anxiety. trait anxious individuals only show attentional bias when they are close to a stressful event
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interpretive bias
tendency to interpret ambitious stimuli and situations in a threatening fashion/or negatively
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explicit memory bias
tendency to retrieve mostly negative and unpleasant memories rather than neutral and positive ones
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Learning strategies - mnemonics
using mental imagery, narrative technique, concept maps/mind maps
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the process
encoding -> storage -> retrieval (encoding -> retrieval -> encoding ect.)
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spaced repetition
likely to lead to a more varied representation --> more searchable/multiple retrieval cues (the longer the spacing the longer you remember)
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Principles
if you fail to remember a word, it should be presented again after a short delay, if you are correct it should presented (tested) after a longer delay
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expanding retrieval
distributed practise + generation effect together (spaced practise leads to less forgetting)
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distribution practise is more efficient in terms of learning and retention
BUT efficiency and convenience are not the same
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maintenance rehearsal
internal repetition (maintenance rehearsal) chances long-term recognition but not recall
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elaborative rehearsal
some form of elaboration material is necessary in order to enhance recall
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Levels of processing (LOP)
emphasis on processing; the type of processing determines whether information is remembered long-term. Deep (e.g. semantic encoding) is more efficient than superficial (e.g. phonological) encoding. Deep encoding establishes multiple retrieval routes
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self-reference effect
the self serves as a basis for elaboration and organisation = we remember information better if we can relate to it
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organisation as elaboration
word lists are better remembered if they are organised by semantic categories
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retrieval
retrieval cues are crucial to remembering the encoding specificity principle. retrieval of info is best if cues that were present at encoding are also present at retrieval
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spatio-temporal context
when, where?
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other contextual aspects
physical state, mood, cognitive context (context can be deliberately reinstated to retrieve a memory or can influence memory incidentally)
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memory is context dependant
environmental context - returning to the original environment helps reinstate the memory that you struggle to access
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memory is state-dependant
internal environment - reinstating the internal environment (drugs, alcohol) helps retrieve memories that were encoded in the same state. mood states as context
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testing beneficial?
repeated retrieval practise leads to effective, more varied cues. Retrieval failures encourage learners to seek effective, alternative cues. Testing produces desirable difficulties and prevents overconfidence
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metacognition
your knowledge, understanding and control of your own cognitive processes a higher order cognitive function. influences how you select and make use of memory strategies
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Nelson and Narens
2 key components of metacognition - object level (actual task you are performing) flow of info, monitor getting along with task, leads to meta level, thinking about where you at.
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measure meta memory
global judgements of learning (JOLs) and individuals JOLs
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global jol
how many do you think you will be able to recall in 1 hour
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individual jol
do you think you will recall mountain/unicorn/comprehension
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foresight bias
people tend to be overconfident in global JOLs but more accurate with individual JOLS
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how to measure meta memory
if the task is easy and time is not limited more time is allocated on difficult items. more time is unnecessarily spent on items already known, not enough on difficult material
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under time pressure
most time is spent on easy material, expertise means you will spend more time on challenging material
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the feeling of knowing phenomenon (FOK)
the subjective feeling of knowing the answer but without being able to recall it
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the tip of the tongue phenomenon (TOT)
a subjectively more extreme version of the above
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typical research paradigm
ask ppt to recall the info, if indicate TOT as if they would be able to recall if additional cue is given (letter cue), check how accurate they were in their prediction of TOT
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chronological age
number of years since birth
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biological age
a change in health status
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social age
the social role an individual takes on or is focused into. 'normative events' e.g. parenting, grand-parenting, death of spouse
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psychological age
the functional sensory and intellectual capacities
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healthy cognitive ageing
decline in cog functioning is normal part of ageing. Aspects of memory and executive function appear to be most clearly affected
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cohort effect
people born at different time periods different cognitively as a result of historic changes in diet, education and other social factors
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The flynn effect
IQ test scores worldwide have been increasing over time; younger generations perform better than older generations. This does not mean that cognitive changes in old age don’t exist or that they are not measurable,
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recall
recall is impaired in OA, typically more difficult than recognition. Recall can be made easier by using cues
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recognition
recognition is not or less impaired. Can be difficult with dividing attention.
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recollection vs familiarity
OA typically respond with fewer R responses, OA overly reliant on familiarity when making recognition decisions
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Source memory
the ability to retrieve the context or the source of information that was previously presented. OA sig poorer at correctly reporting who presented a certain piece of information to them
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false fame effect
OA tend to attribute fame to non-famous but highly familiar stimulus due to presentation in an experimental setting
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semantic memory
preserved, vocal well preserved, autobiographical facts preserved
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STM
STM storage not typically impaired e.g. digit forward task is normal but digit backward span task is impaired (difficulties with holding and manipulating information at the same time)
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metamemory
OA tend to be overconfident about their memory in experimental memory tasks but no completely inaccurate in their perditions as to what they will and will not be able to remember (item-based JOLs and FOKs)
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inhibition theory
OA have difficulty inhibiting irrelevant information when retrieving from memory
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Dementia
condition with a gradual yet relentless loss of cognitive function due to a progressive degeneration of neurons
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Alzheimer's warning signs
memory loss affects job skills, difficulty performing familiar tasks, problems with language, disorientation to time and place, poor or decreased judgement, problems with abstract thinking, misplacing things, changes in mood/behaviour/personality
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Diagnosis
memory impairment with at least two other deficits including problems of language, action control, perception, executive function
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memory deficits in AD
substantial episodic memory deficit, semantic declines as disease progresses, sig working memory deficits
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autobiographical memory
different kinds of stored knowledge pertaining to the self, including personal episodes and facts, older memories are generally better preserved than recent memories in AD
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4 categories of identity
attributes, social identities, evaluative descriptions, physical descriptions. AD generate fewer responses on test, higher percentage of evaluative responses rather than social identities
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

unable to link percepts to meaning. Impairment in recognition or assigning meaning to a stimulus that is accurately perceived and not associated with a generalised deficit in intelligence, memory, language or attention

Back

Associative Agnosia

Card 3

Front

a condition mostly caused by brain damage in which there is a severe impairment in face recognition but less impairment of object recognition; also known as face blindness

Back

Preview of the back of card 3

Card 4

Front

high load tasks --> less distraction (reduces attentional control) --> makes us more distractible. Have to control self cognitively

Back

Preview of the back of card 4

Card 5

Front

(working memory demands) high load tasks --> more distraction

Back

Preview of the back of card 5
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