Landscapes from the Past - Geography - UK's Physical Landscape

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  • Landscapes from the Past
    • Geology
      • Carbon dating uses radioactive testing to find the age of rocks which contained living material
        • by carbon dating rocks in Malham Cove, we know that the corals from which they were formed lived during the Carboniferous
      • during the Carboniferous, the UK was covered by shallow, tropical seas - fish and corals thrived
        • as they died, their skeletons formed strata on the sea floor. More and more fell, crushing those beneath, squeezing out water and compacting them into rock. calcium carbonate crystallized around the fragments, cementing them together
          • then, other rock strata (e.g. sandstone and shale) deposited on top of the limestone
    • Tectonic Processes
      • 3 plates affected rocks in the Pennines since the Carboniferous
        • the plate on which the UK sits shifted away from the tropics. convection currents beneath the plate uplifted rocks from below the sea, becoming land. during uplift, some rocks snapped and moved along faults in a series of earthquakes over 100s of years. the strata was disturbed so it tilted. occasionally, the faults form a fault scarp where uplift has raised some parts more than others.
    • Glaciation
      • during the uplift, rivers like the Wharfe eroded into the Pennines, creating V-shaped valleys
      • 10,000 years ago, during the most recent Ice Age, glaciers were brought to the Pennines
        • they widened and deepened river valleys into U-shaped troughts
        • as they melted, they left features like Malham Cove with a waterfall.

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