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Changing Population - Rural to Urban migration

Population Distribution = How the population are spread out

Population Density = How many people per square km

INCREASING population, more people living in Urban areas.

Sparsely Populated = an area with a low population Density

Densely Populated = An area with a high population density which is compact

Migration = The movement of one place to another

Emigrate = Move out of

Imigrate = Move into

Push factors = Reasons that make you want to leave a place

Pull factors = Reasons that draw you to a new place

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Changing population - Counter-Urbanisation

Counter-Urbanisation is the movement of people out of cities, to the surrounding areas.


1. Increase in car ownership

2. Pollution, crime + traffic

3. Retirement

4. Buisnesses on outskirts

5. Working from home (increase in technology)

Traffic, decline in industry, high unemployment in city. Rising house prices, conjested country lanes, housing pressure which destroys natural landscapes and habitats. Small schools and buisnesses survive as well as infrastructure development.

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Urbanisation Case Study

North East Brazil - Rio De Janeiro:

Rural area - Big families, drought, poor farming, peaceful, Malaria, unskilled work available nearby.

City is crowded, full of disease, electricity, water + sewage available, higher wages, illegal shantytowns.

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Population Pyramids

They show:

Birth rates+Death rates

Effects of migration

Effects of war, famine+Diseases

Indication of life expectancy

MEDC = Square

LEDC = Triangle

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Ageing Populations

Pull Factors:

Peaceful areas

Flat land by sea - nice views


Cleaner air (less pollution)

E.g. Worthing - 23% of population aged over 65, will become more of a family town in the future due to increased tourism and leisure.

Lots of old people in a town means higher taxes, less young people, area stuck in 'time warp', becomes crime target, area becomes wealthier, decrease in crime, more volunteers.

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Globalization is about sharing interests and buisnesses across the world to embrace new advances in technology, resulting in economic, political, social and culteral advantages.

TNC = A Transnational Company

A TNC is a company that produces and sells its products in different countries.

TNC's choose to manufacture in LEDC's because of CHEAP LABOUR and LONG WORKING HOURS.


Creates jobs+Improves local infrastructure


Bad Publicity, damage to environment, poor working conditions+insecure jobs

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Coca-Cola Headquarters in USA (Educated+Powerful MEDC)

Take water resources for their factories in LEDC's from local community which causes drought and they can unexpectedly close at any time. They provide training, education and community schemes though and there are no disadvantages in MEDC's, TNC's provide publicity and enhance areas for them.

Nike pay millions of dollars to sport superstars to promote their product. They pay workers in foreign countries $2 per day to make their product. They charge their workers for their lunch - 27 cents per day. This comes directly out of their pay cheque.

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International trade is the exchange of goods and services between countries.

Changes in technology has created more Interdependance = mutually dependent on each other = More globalization. It is the growth of TNC's, internet, cheaper and quicker air travel, global media, mobile phones and sharing of cultures that have allowed this trade to happen.

Rich countries cheat by adding tax after purchasing goods so LEDC's don't get any profit.

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Banana Trade

Banana worker = 1p

Plantation owner = 6p

Shipper = 7p

Importer = 7p

Supermarkets = 9p

Workers have no power whereas supermarkets are very powerful and greedy. People could protest by not buying bananas or buy fairtrade bananas.

Fairtrade = A method which ensures disadvantaged farmers and workers in developing countries get a better deal. WINWARD ISLANDS - Environmental: Limitts use of chemicals and educates farmers on environmental protection. Economic: Farmers paid 5% more. Social: Social premium enables Schools to be built, no child labour, improves infastructure+farmers confidence.

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European Union

Original members include:

UK, France, Spain

Enlargement members include:

Poland, Hungary, Romania


Single currency

CAP = Common Agriculteral Policy allows solid farmer trade

CFP = Common Fisheries Policy controls fish type

Economics - lower taxes

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Polish migration


Skilled workers to fill gaps

Economic growth

Buisness oppertunities



Counter-acts ageing population


Social/culteral tensions

Pressure on NHS, housing, population and wages

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Birth rate = The number of live births per 1000 people per year

Death rate = The number of deaths per 1000 people per year

Life expectancy = The average number of years a person a person born in a country might be expected to live.

Infant mortality = The average number of deaths of children under 1 year of age per 1000 live births

Natural increase = Birth rate minus death rate shows population increase

People per doctor = The number of patients each doctor is responsible for on average

Adult literacy = The percentage of people who can read and write

GNP (Groiss national Product) = The total value of goods and services produced by its total population

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Development 2


Crowded+Dirty+Noisy+Messy vs Clean+industrialized

Diseases vs good healthcare

Dangerous+run down vs little crime+Pretty areas

Hard work+Desperation vs hard work, pleasure+rewards

Child labour vs Good education

Lack of health+Safety vs Lots of health+safety

Basic resources+lack of technology vs Advanced resources+technology

Long, tiring working hours for little pay vs Standard working hours for substantial pay

Fear, yet a sense of community+culture vs Content+happy lifestyles but opinionated+judgemental

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Brandt Line

Above mexico, below florida, above Africa, India+China, below Australia

North = MEDC's: High GNP, free health care, high literacy levels, supportive goverment, low birth+death rates, free education

South = LEDC's: Low GNP, no health+safety, low literacy levels, child soldiers, falling death rates+high birth rates, higher percentage of recycling.

1.3 Billion people live on less than $1 a day

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Regional Inequalities in Brazil

Periphery = the edge (fewer jobs+services+less investment+lower levels of wealth, development+standard of living)

Favela = Shanty Town/slum

Squatter = Someone who settles on the land without a legal right to be there.

Spontaneous settlements = unplanned shanty town

Rochina is the biggest favela in Soth America. Some people have electricity which is illegal and dangerous. Population = 200,000 but death rate 3 times higher than city centre due to lack of health care. 

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Transpiration = Evaporation from trees

Evapotranspiration = Evaporation+Transpiration

Hydrological cycle: Precipitation->Surface run-off/Infiltration->Percilation->Through-flow->Groundwater Flow->Evapotranspiration->Condensation

The area of land drained by a river and its tributaries is called a drainage basin. One drainage basin is seperated from another by a natural ridge called a watershed.

Source = Start of river

Mouth = End of river

Tributary = Stream that flows into main river

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River Profile

Weathering = The breakdown of rocks

Erosion = the wearing away of material

Transportation = The carrying along of material which has fallen into river or been eroded

Deposition = The putting down of material when there is a decrease in energy due to reduction in gradient (steepness), shallow water or increase in load size

Confluence = The place that two streams join together

Velocity = Speed

Upper course: Source, vertical erosion(V-Shaped Valley)+Transportation. Interlocking Spurs, active landslides, large bed load (traction), narrow, shallow channel, high velocity but low discharge.

Middle Course: Lateral (wider river channel)+Vertical erosion (deeper river channel)+Transportation (Saltation)+Deposition (Meanders). Gentle slopes, high velocity+Discharge.

Lower Course: Mouth, Transportation (high sediment load)+Deposition (meanders). Very wide, flat flood plain.

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River processes

Traction = Large boulders and rocks are rolled along the river bed.

Saltation = Small pebbles and stones are bounced along the river bed.

Suspension = Fine, light material is carried along by the river.

*Solution = Minerals are dissolved in the water (a chemical change).

Abrasion = Scraping and rubbing action of materials carried along by the river. Wears down banks and bed.

Hydraulic Action = Caused by power of water which undercutts and collapses river banks.

*Corrosion = Minerals in rocks dissolved by weak acids in water.

Attrition = Reduction in size of particles carried in river. When hit against each other, they become smaller and rounder. 

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River discharge = The volume of water passing a measuring point (gauging station) at a given time (cumecs). Affected by precipitation, evapotranspiration and storage factors.

Base flow = The starting and finishing level of the river

Rising limb = The rising discharge as storm water enters the river

Receding limb = The fall in discharge as the river returns to its normal level

Lag time = The time delay between peak rainfall and peak discharge

A Short lag time indicates a flash flood and is shown on a flasy hydrograph. Flash floods are caused by short periods of high intensity rainfall, impermeable underlying rock, an urban area, a small drainage basin.

A long lag time indicates no risk of flooding and could be caused by steady rainfall, permeable rock, a rural area, a big drainage basin.

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River features

Waterfalls occur in the upper course. Abrasion and hydraulic action erode the river bed and cause a dip where hard rock turns to soft rock. Vertical erosion causes a waterfall and a deep plunge pool. Spray causes backwards erosion, there is no suppport for the hard rock so it collapses, causing the waterfall to retreat and big boulders settle in the plunge pool. Eventually, a gorge will form from the retreating waterfall.

Meanders occur in the middle course where fast flowing water with high energy erodes one side of the river, causing it to bend. The bends will eventually meet because the river wants to take the quickest route. Now the river flows through in a straight path, leaving an ox-bow lake detached from the main river.

Levees occur in the lower course when a river floods. The thickest and coarsest sediments are deposited at channel edges with thinner, finer sediments deposited further out on the floodplain. Natural levees build up either side of the river after many floods. Man-made levees can be put in place as a form of flood defence.

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Flood Defences

Hard Engineering = A controlled disruption of natural processes using man-made structures. E.g. Dams (can be used for electricity but expensive), embankments (man-made levees which prevent flooding but restricts fishing and land use), flood shelters (cheap, easy to construct but don't protect property), river straightening (clears water quickly but damages environment), sluice gates (contols water flow, good for moving water but may damage environment).

Soft engineering = Use of ecological practices to reduce erosion and achieve stabilisation whilst enhancing habitats and saving money. E.g. doing nothing, flood warning systems, floodplain zoning (Specific uses at various places on the floodplain), managed flooding (allowed to flood in some areas but not others), afforestation (Low cost&enhances environment), willow weaving (fence barrier which looks natural&provides habitats.

BOSCASTLE: 16th August 2004 River Valency = Steep Valley, small drainage basin, 100 people airlifted to safety, insurance, tourism decrease, museum demolished, 84 wrecked cars, new bridge&deeper river didn't help in 2007 flood, dam should be built.

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Climate change

Global warming is the rising temperature of the earth's surface.

CHINA = Headteacher - '1/4 of sudents get respiratory diseases', 400,000 people in China die prematurely from pollution related illnesses, lack of wind means smog stays in the air. Acid rain damages crops which causes a lack of nutritional food for the local people.

Evidence: Flash floods, strong winds, more slugs, more rain.


Economic = Farmers lose crops, food prices rise

Environmental = Hose pipe ban, temperature increase, ice-caps melting, diseases spread, extinction, rising sea level

Social = Flight cancellations, no power

Solutions: Reduce power station emissions, use renewable energy resources, plant more trees (stop deforestation)

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Living in an active zone

Crust - Thinnest layer

Mantle - Constantly moving jam-like liquid (largest layer)

Outer core - Liquid iron

Inner core - Solid iron

Continental drift is when land masses move because the liquid in the mantle is constantly moving the tectonic plates above it. Plate tectonics split the crust into sections, they move constantly in different directions because of convection currents in the mantle below.

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Plate movements

Constructive: Oppisite directions, crust splits and fills with magma. Layers build up to form an island or volcano. Can cause earthquakes.

Destructive: Oceanic plate+continental plate pushing against each other, oceanic sinks under because it is more dense. It melts in magma and shoots up as volcano. Earthquake created.

Conservative: Two plates sliding past each other causing friction and an earthquake.

Collision: Two oceanic or two continental plates (same density) collide and form mountains.

SENDAI EARTHQUAKE: 11th March 2011 - 9 on richter scale, pacific&Eurasion plates, 200,000 people evacuated. Primary effects: 2 nuclear power stations partial meltdown, heavy damage to infrastructure. Secondary effects: Tsunami, fires, lack of electricity&water

GRIMSVOTN VOLCANO: 21st May 2011 - lasted 5 days Primary effects: Ash mushroom, evacuations of cities, aftershocks. Secondary effects: Flights cancelled, ash travelled to other countries.

YELLOWSTONE: Supervolcano - 90% of population would be killed. Monitored by satellites, magma levels, animal behaviour, water PH.

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Why people live in active zones

Picturesque - Natural attractions which creates jobs&injects money, improved infrastructure

Fertile soil - ash rich in nutrients, self-sufficient

Geothermal power - Renewable&Cheap

Precious metals&Building materials, e.g. gold&diamonds

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