PHYSICAL GEOGRAPHY

TOPICS INCLUDING:

THE RESTLESS EARTH

WATER ON THE LAND

THE COASTAL ZONE

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  • Physical Geography
    • The restless earth
      • Tectonic Plates
        • The crust is Divided into Tectonic paltes
        • Two types: Continental and Oceanic
          • Continental Crust: THICK AND LESS DENSE
          • Oceanic Plate: THIN AND MORE DENSE
      • FOLD MOUNTAINS
        • LARGE MOUNTAIN RANGES- Layers of sedimentary are forced UPWARDS due to Collision
          • Causes Earth Quakes and Fold Mountains
        • found at destructive/collision plate boundary
        • Case Study
          • THE ANDES, SOUTH AMERICA
            • 4 USES
              • FARMING
                • SUBSISTENCE FARMERS MAINLY THERE
                • CROPS INCLUDE POTATOES
                • TERRACES HELP RETAIN WATER AND STOP MOVEMENT OF SOIL DOWN HILL
                • CROPS GROWN ON FLAT LAND IN VALLEYS
                • MALE LLAMAS CARRY GOODS AND FEMALES LLAMAS PROVIDE MILK
              • MINING
                • PROVIDES HALF OF PERUS EXPORTS- GOLD AND SILVER. BOLIVIA PROVIDES TIN
                • YANACOCHA GOLD MINE IN PERU IS THE LARGEST GOLD MINE IN THE WORLD.
                • GOLD IS MINED BY BLASTING ROCK WITH DYNAMITE, SPRAY WITH CYANIDE AND THEN EXTRACT GOLD FROM SOLUTION.
                • MANY JOBS CREATED IN NEARBY TOWNS E.G.  CAJAMARCA GROWN  FROM 30,000-300,000
                • MORE PEOPLE = SERVICES NEEDED = MORE JOBS AVAILABLE=PRESSURE ON SERVICES.
              • HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER (HEP)
                • STEEP SLOPES ON ANDES ENCOURAGES FAST FLOW OF WATER IDEAL FOR HEP.
                • NARROW VALLEYS CAN BE EASILY DAMMED
                • MELTING SNOW IN SPING INCREASES WATER FLOW.
                  • STEEP SLOPES ON ANDES ENCOURAGES FAST FLOW OF WATER IDEAL FOR HEP.
                • EL PLATANAL HEP PLANT IN PERY IS HUGE
              • TOURISM
                • ATTRACTIVE SCENERY: -VOLCANOES, LAKES, GLACIERS, MOUNTAIN PEAKS
                • TREKKING ON INCA TRAIL (45 KM LONG) WHICH LEADS TO WORLD HERITAGE SITE - MACCHU PICCHU
                • RARE BIRDS AND SPECIES
        • When continental and oceanic plate collides E.G. THE ANDES
          • Case Study
            • THE ANDES, SOUTH AMERICA
              • 4 USES
                • FARMING
                  • SUBSISTENCE FARMERS MAINLY THERE
                  • CROPS INCLUDE POTATOES
                  • TERRACES HELP RETAIN WATER AND STOP MOVEMENT OF SOIL DOWN HILL
                  • CROPS GROWN ON FLAT LAND IN VALLEYS
                  • MALE LLAMAS CARRY GOODS AND FEMALES LLAMAS PROVIDE MILK
                • MINING
                  • PROVIDES HALF OF PERUS EXPORTS- GOLD AND SILVER. BOLIVIA PROVIDES TIN
                  • YANACOCHA GOLD MINE IN PERU IS THE LARGEST GOLD MINE IN THE WORLD.
                  • GOLD IS MINED BY BLASTING ROCK WITH DYNAMITE, SPRAY WITH CYANIDE AND THEN EXTRACT GOLD FROM SOLUTION.
                  • MANY JOBS CREATED IN NEARBY TOWNS E.G.  CAJAMARCA GROWN  FROM 30,000-300,000
                  • MORE PEOPLE = SERVICES NEEDED = MORE JOBS AVAILABLE=PRESSURE ON SERVICES.
                • HYDRO-ELECTRIC POWER (HEP)
                  • NARROW VALLEYS CAN BE EASILY DAMMED
                  • MELTING SNOW IN SPING INCREASES WATER FLOW.
                    • EL PLATANAL HEP PLANT IN PERY IS HUGE
                  • TOURISM
                    • ATTRACTIVE SCENERY: -VOLCANOES, LAKES, GLACIERS, MOUNTAIN PEAKS
                    • TREKKING ON INCA TRAIL (45 KM LONG) WHICH LEADS TO WORLD HERITAGE SITE - MACCHU PICCHU
                    • RARE BIRDS AND SPECIES
          • When 2 CONTINENTAL PLATES COLLIDE E.G. HIMILAYAS
          • Characteristics: High Mountains, Rocky, Steep Slopes, Glaciers and Rivers
        • VOLCANOES
          • 3 TYPES
            • COMPOSITE
              • EXAMPLE: MOUNT FUJI, JAPAN
              • MADE OF ASH AND LAVA
              • EREUPTED, COOLED AND HARDENED INTO LAYERS
                • MADE OF ASH AND LAVA
              • LAVA=THICK- FLOWS SLOWLY = HARDENS QUICKLY
                • EREUPTED, COOLED AND HARDENED INTO LAYERS
                • STEEP SIDED VOLCANO
                  • DOME
                    • EXAMPLE CARRIBEAN,
                    • ONLY LAVA
                    • LAVA= THICK=FLOWS SLOWLY= HARDENS QUICKLY
              • SHIELD
                • EXAMPLE: MAUNA LOA, HAWAIIN ISLANDS
                • MADE OF ONLY LAVA
                • LAVA = RUNNY= FLOWS QUICKLY- SPREADS OVER WIDE AREA
                  • MADE OF ONLY LAVA
                • LOW, FLAT VOLCANO
              • DOME
                • EXAMPLE CARRIBEAN,
                • ONLY LAVA
                • LAVA= THICK=FLOWS SLOWLY= HARDENS QUICKLY
            • CASE STUDY: EYJAFJALLAJOKULL, ICELAND- 2010
              • LOCATIONS AND CHARACTERISTICS
                • LIES ON CONSTRUCTIVE PLATE BOUNDARY
                • ON MID-ATLANTIC- RIDGE (EURASIAN AND NORTH AMERICAN)
                • PLATES MOVE APART DUE TO CONVECTION CURRENTS
                • GAP IS FORMED
                • LAYERS OF LAVA SOLIDIFIES AND FORMS VOLCANO
              • EFFECTS
                • POSITIVE
                  • EYJAFJALLA JOKUL NEW ICELALANDIC TOURIST ATTRACTION- BENEFITS FOR LOCAL PEOPLE, INDUSTRIES AND ECONOMY.
                  • SOILS BECOME FERTILE DUE TO LAVA/ ASH.
                  • VOLCANIC ROCKS USED FOR BUILDING
                  • GEOTHERMAL ENERGUY PRODUCES ELECTRICITY/ HOT WATER FOR INDUSTRIES HEATS SWIMMING POOLS AND MELTSSNOW ON PAVEMENTS.
                  • VALUABLE MINERALS FOUND IN LAVA
                  • SULPHUR IN CRATERS USED TO BLEACH SUGAR, MAKE MATCHES AND FERTILIZER.
                • NEGATIVE
                  • SECONDARY
                    • LOCAL FLOOD DEFENCES HAD TO BE REBUILT
                    • TOURISM BADLY IMPACTED ICELAND-ECONOMY, LOCAL JOBS, INCOMES.
                    • ROADS/SERVICES HAD TO BE REBUILT.
                    • WORLDWIDE INDUSTRIES AFFECTED BY LACK OF RAW MATERIALS
                    • GOODS COULD NOT BE IMPORTED BY PLANES- AFFECTED SUPERMARKETS AND WORLDWIDE PRODUCERS.
                    • AILINES INDUSTRY LOST A LOT OF MONEY
                  • PRIMARY
                    • LARGE AREAS COVERED IN ASH- DAY TURNED INTO NIGHT
                    • APPROX. 800 PEOPLE HAD TO BE EVACUATED
                    • DAMAGED HOMES, ROADS WASHED AWAY
                    • THICK LAYER OF ASH COVERED FARMLAND DAMAGING CROPS
                    • SERVICES- WATER, ELECTRICITY- WERE DISRUPTED
                    • OVER AN 8 DAY PERIOD  100,000 FLIGHTS WERE CANCELLED , 10 MILLION PASSENGERS AFFECTED.
              • RESPONSES
                • IMMEDIATE
                  • EVACUATION
                  • MASKS WORN-DENSE ASH
                  • NO FLIGHTS ALLOWED
                • SHORT TIME
                  • RESEARCH INTO MONITORING ASH CONENTRATION AND IMPROVING FORECASTING
            • SUPER VOLCANO CASE STUDY: YELLOWSTONE.
              • CHARACTERISTICS
                • HUGE!!!!!
                • COVER LARGE AREA
                • FLAT-HAVE LARGE DEPPRESSIONS CALLED CALDERA
                • CAN ALTER LANDSCAPE OVER 1000S KM
                • ERUPTION HAPPEN VERY RARE.
                • AT DESTRUCTIVE PLATE MARGINS/HOT SPOTS
              • Global Effects
                • send out atleast 1000km3 of material-rock, as, lava.
                • ordinary volcano will emit 1km3
                  • send out atleast 1000km3 of material-rock, as, lava.
                • THICK CLOUD OF SUPER-HEATED GAS AND ASH WILL FLOW AT HIGH SPEED KILLING , BURNING, BURYING EVERYTHING
                • BLOCK DAYLIGHT-THICK ASH.-OVER WHOLE CONTINENTS
                • GOABAL TEMP. WILL FALL (12-15 DEGREES)
                • LAND WILL BE COVERED IN SNOW FOR 3 YEARS.
                  • CROPS WONT GROW-40% OF POPULATION WILL FACE STARVATION
                • LIVESTOCK KILLED
                  • 1 IN 3 PEOPLE WILL DIE
                • FLIGHTS SUSPENDED.
              • RESPONSES!
                • PEOPLE HELPED EACHOTHER AS RESCUES SERVICES COULD NOT BE REACHED.
                • LARGE STORES HELPED PROVIDE ESSENTIAL FOODS
                  • PEOPLE HELPED EACHOTHER AS RESCUES SERVICES COULD NOT BE REACHED.
                • IMMEDIATE!
                  • LARGE STORES HELPED PROVIDE ESSENTIAL FOODS
                    • HANSHIN EXPRESSWAY REMAINED CLODSED FOR 18 MONTHS
                    • total cost of the damages was approx. £56 million
                  • long term
                    • high buildings have steel flexible frames
                      • rubber block placed under bridges to absorb shocks
            • EARTHQUAKES
              • can happen on destructive and collision plate msrgins
              • WAVES ARE STRONGER NEAR FOCUS= MORE DAMAGE
              • CAN BE MEASURED USING : RICHTER SCALE AND MERCALLI SCALE.
              • case study: Haiti, ledc, 2010
                • causes
                  • lies on a constructive margin between north American and carribbean plates
                  • 7.0 on richter scale
                  • epicentre was very close to port au prince so earthquake was v. powerful.
                  • focus was v. shallow so tremors were v. strong.
                • 12th jan
                • effects
                  • primary
                    • approx. 230,000 people killed
                    • 180,000 homes destroyed- poorly constructed concrete building
                    • port au prince (capital) was destroyed
                    • 5,000 schools damaged/ destroyed.
                    • services were badly destroyed/ disrupted.
                  • secondary
                    • 1.5 million people made homeless
                    • homeless people made to live in squalid
                    • 100's people died of cholera
                    • total cost of damage=$11.5 million
                  • long term
                    • one of the poorest countries in the world so it was unprepared for an earthquake, 3 years on thousands still live in camps. it is thought it would take ten years to rebuild Haiti.
                • responses
                  • immediate
                    • local people helped
                    • search and rescue teams from abroad flown to help survivors
                    • Aid -provided by USA.
                    • UK disaster committee raised over £100 million
                  • long term
                    • damaged buildings were inspected and repaired.
                    • 200,000 local people assisting with clean up work have been paid food, cash.
                    • many thousand moved away/ migrated from  port au prince
                    • world bank has pledged US$100 MILLION TO HELP  reconstruction of Haiti.
              • EARTHQUAKE: CASE STUDY TOHOKU TSUNAMI, JAPAN 11TH MARCH, 2011
                • CAUSES
                  • LIES ON DESTRUCTIVE PLATE: PACIFIC SUBDUCTED BELOW EURASIAN
                  • 9.0  ON RICHTER SCALE, OCCURRED 100KM EAST OF JAPANESE COAST.
                  • OVER 1000 AFTERSHOCKES
                  • WAVES SWEPT UP TO10 KM INLAND.
                  • IN 30 MIN. A WALL OF WATER 40M HIGH HIT THE COASTLINE
                • EFFECTS
                  • PRIMARY
                    • 20,000 PEOPLE KILLED
                    • GAS PIPES BROKEN
                    • COMMUNICATIONS DESTROYED.
                    • ELECTRIICTY CUTT OFF 6 MILLION HOMES, WATER SUPPLIES CUT IN 12 MILLION HOMES
                  • SECONDARY
                    • FIRES BURNED FOR MANY DAYS
                    • FUKISHIMA NUCLEAR PLANT EXPLODED( DUE TO SEA WATER), CONCERNS ABOUT NUCLEAR LEAKS AND CONTAMINATION
                    • ROADS BLOCKED BY LANDSLIDES AND DEBRIS, AFFECTED AID.
                    • WORLD STOCK MARKETS FELL OVER RE JAPANS DEPT.
                • RESPONSES
                  • IMMEDIATE: OVER 120,000 JAPANESE SOLDIERS HELPED RESCUE.
                  • BLANKETS, WATER, FOOD GIVEN TO AFFECTED PEOPLE.
                  • RESCUE TEAMS/SPECIALIST SEARCH CAME FROM OTHER COUNTRIES.
                  • PORT REBUILT
                  • EXCLUSION ZONE SET AROUND FUKUSHIMA NUCLEAR PLANT
          • THE COASTAL ZONE
            • COASTAL MANAGEMENT: CASE STUDY HOLDERNESS, EAST YORKSHIRE
            • weathering:breakdown of rocks where they are
              • mechanical
                • withoust changing its chemical
                • Untitled
              • chemical
                • by changing its chemical composition
        • NEGATIVE
          • SECONDARY
            • LOCAL FLOOD DEFENCES HAD TO BE REBUILT
            • TOURISM BADLY IMPACTED ICELAND-ECONOMY, LOCAL JOBS, INCOMES.
            • ROADS/SERVICES HAD TO BE REBUILT.
            • WORLDWIDE INDUSTRIES AFFECTED BY LACK OF RAW MATERIALS
            • GOODS COULD NOT BE IMPORTED BY PLANES- AFFECTED SUPERMARKETS AND WORLDWIDE PRODUCERS.
            • AILINES INDUSTRY LOST A LOT OF MONEY
          • PRIMARY
            • LARGE AREAS COVERED IN ASH- DAY TURNED INTO NIGHT
            • APPROX. 800 PEOPLE HAD TO BE EVACUATED
            • DAMAGED HOMES, ROADS WASHED AWAY
            • THICK LAYER OF ASH COVERED FARMLAND DAMAGING CROPS
            • SERVICES- WATER, ELECTRICITY- WERE DISRUPTED
            • OVER AN 8 DAY PERIOD  100,000 FLIGHTS WERE CANCELLED , 10 MILLION PASSENGERS AFFECTED.

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