Destructive plate boundary


CASE STUDY: Nazca plate(Brazil) + South A Plate (africa) between atlantic are moving together.
2plates meet +collide> oceanic crust breaks(more dense)-named subduction zone>remaining rock travels up the mantle and makes magma>piles up>volcano

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Constructive plate boundary


CASE STUDY: North A + Eurasian( Europe)plates are moving in opposite direct between atlantic.
>usually oceans>gap is made due to plates moving in opp direct> gap filled by magma>volcanoes+ volcanic islands(Iceland) 

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Conservative plate boundary


CASE STUDY: North A (East Iceland) and pacific (west I) are moving at diff speeds, NA is moving faster
2 plates move beside eachother(diff speeds)>friction=earthquakes>a fault is made>SAN ANDREAS 

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Collision plate boundary


CASE STUDY: African plate+ Eurasian plate between med=ALPS
>plates collide>sedimentary rock forced upwards into folds=mountains>sed rock has been deposited + compressed into depressions then into rocks (limestone/sandstone) 

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-Mainly found on destructive plate boundarys
-Nothern Hemisphere (towards NE+SW)
- 2= Juan de fuca (Hawaii hotspot)= 3 of them are on northern plate
-Other 3 are found on indo-australian plate/phillipine+Eurasian

-most potent/dangerous
-although they are 'invisible' (dont take classic shape'
-one of 2 forms, either> immense volcanic eruption or less violent but equally as dangerous 

-If a VEI8 eruption> extinguish all life within 200km and areas outside immediate zone would be covered in metre layers of volcanic ash
>ash cloud 

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-Conical hill/mountain formed by material from the mantle being forced upwards through an opening/vent in the earths crust

Active> presently erupting
Dorment> currently inactive
Extinct>both inactive and unlikely to erupt again

-mainly found on destructive boundarys, most on edge of pacific plate,inparticular Japan/Indonesia 

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3 ways to make volcanos

>Oceanic plate subducts> buildup of pressure>oceanic crust conatins silica(acidic lava)>forced upards>volcano= Eurasian + Pacific= Mount Fuji, Japan

>Plates diverge>magma rises (convection currents) = Grimsrotn, Iceland

>Not on a plate boundary>Rising convect current from core> weak pint in crust and seeps out=shield volcanoes= Mauna Loa, Hawaii 

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2 Types of volcano


>Magma chamber (low viscosity lava), narrow central vent, flank eruptions may be formed along the gently sloping sides

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2 Types of volcano

COMPOSITE: Mount Fuji, Japan

>alternate layers of lava and ash(high viscosity lava), central vent is more likely to be full of lava from  prev erupt. following to narrow base,Sills of magma form along steep sides,very violent and erupts freq. 

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Japan Earthquake

Japan - 1995, 5:46am, 7.2
> Phillipine plate subducted beneath eurasian plate
>Friction from the 2 plates colliding along destructive margin
>great destruction> shallow depth of focus (16km) below the surface, epicentre was near very pop.

>over 5k dead, collapsing buildings/bridges +roads, ground liquified
>Emergency shelter, rescue teams searched for 10days,people were put in town halls 

>300k homeless, damage £100bil, fires, closure of businesses, chaos on roads, no insurance
>services were working by july 1995, railways were back in 1995, 80% of port was working, New laws for infrastructure were made, regular earthq drills 

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Haiti Earthquake

Haiti- 2010, 16:53pm, 7.0
>Fault that runs along the bouundary between the Caribbean and NA plate
>Plates constantly slide past eachother
>epicentre struck 10miles from capital (5.9 +5.5)

>250k residences collapsed, 316k people died, medical faciliities, roads, infrastructure collapsed
>$100 mil (aid) was given by USA, 810k people were placed in aid camps, 115k tents/shelter provided

>Roads and services shut, people were forced to live on streets,1 mil left homeless, 1in5 lost jobs,diease spread, aid was difficult, damage worth between $8.1 and $13.9 
>Water and sanitation supplies for 1.7 mil, schools created, support for the unemployed 

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Fold Mountains (ALPS)

>created at collision  boundarys
>at the meeting of continental crusts
>Newer/weaker sedimentary rocks that get forced upwards

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The Earth's Structure


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How are earthquakes measured?

>measured using a seismograph which records the magnitude(amount of shaking)
> the Richter scale(value for amount of shaking) is a scale from 1+
increase of 1 is 10x bigger
>Mercalli scale (damage done) 

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An increase in the proportion of people living in urban areas
>Natural pop. increase (higher birth rates than death)and migration are significant
>Improved med care,better sanitation, improved food supplies
>Employment,food, shelter, education
>better life
>more opportunities, higher salaries, better services/lifestyles

Problems: IN LEDCs
Social-Most surrounded by shanty towns- found in swamps etc., illegal settlements, fire hazards, lack of services, disease, high infant mortality rates, malnutritiion, limited healthcare, high crime rates,
Economic- very few jobs, migrants often unskiller/uneducated=informal sector like street sellers, prostitutes,shoe shiners etc.
Environmental- traffic,lack of space, roads are narrow/congested, inefficent exhaust systems,pollution
water Pollution- unreliable water sources, pollution of water sources, drinking/cleaning in the same water 

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Structure of an LEDC city


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Kibera, Nairobi, Kenya

> Eastern Africa
>Largest slum in Kenya, 60% of people live there,size of 255 football pitches, around 100k orphans
Living conditions:
>3bil survive on less that £1.50 a day,over 1k share  a toilet, 20% children don't live up to 5yrs, open sewers, 8 people could live in 1 room, contaminated water

ASH- provide materials to help build homes
S+S- provide electricity and water for a small mortgage
Practical action- provide low cost homes with tiles
Opportunities- To attend an evening college to learn construction and get  a job, 
Local authority- Build 2 new main water supplies one from Kenyan government and the other from the world bank (costs 3 shillings per 20L)

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Problems of rapid urbanization: CAIRO

- Largest city in Africa, (16mil people)
 Traffic congestion:
>Massive new ring road,
>Train services are well organised and quick

>The Zabateen collect rubbish (with donkeys)

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Management of water in LEDCs

1 in 8 don't have access to clean water
Wells, unreliable and cause of disease
Spring on a hillside= water can be piped down
Harvesting (collecting rainwater)
recycling waste water to use on crops

Managing safe water:
>In Nigeria only 38% have access to sanitation

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Burgess Model


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Urban morphology of MEDCs

CBD- heart of the city, settlements were orig.,historic buildings, main roads meet, stations, shops, offices, very expensive land E.g) Trinity, the light, west yorkshire playhouse etc

Housing- High density terraces, may have an alleyway behind houses,student homes
Industry- develops along tranpsort routes, surrounds CBD, rundown,developed in Indust rev

Cover most land area, residential land use, expanded after ww1, semi detached + detached housing, most have driveways/gardens

Rural-Urban Fringe-
Many diff land uses, Now often sites of airports E.G) Leeds Bradford 

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Improvement strategies for CBDs

Street Furniture
Preservation of old and historic buildings
Licenses needed for street productions/stalls

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Structure- Department stores, specialist shops, some office blocks

Urban decline? Urban areas become run down and suffer from crime, vacant buildings etc.
>many shops move to out of town shopping centres
> creates abandoned shops =crime and vandalism

> BIns/benches 

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Congestion Charges= fee charge, £8 a day.
+ Reduce congestion +pollution, raise revenue, reduce journey time
-Lost businesses for firms in city centre, expensive to administer, Evasian, inequality

Park+Ride= park your car and get on public tranpsort
+avoid stress, reduces pollution,easy
-impacts on congestion are limited

Public Transport= shared passenger service
+reduces congestion, advertising, can be cheap
-inconvienant and crowded, crime

Boris Bikes=Cycle around the city centre
+ first 30mins are free, fairly cheap, available 24 hours a day all year, reduce pollution
-high demand(not always one free)

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Inner city issues/solutions

Causes of issues:
> Many workers began to move out of the inner city, due to environmental,social, and economic probs, flats were crime ridden making familys move

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Moss side and Hulme

-industrial recession, factories getting old= 10k offered to companies who would relocate
-decline in services,local shops shut down (crime), little investment= ASDA(provided jobs)
-Mosside was avoided, high unemployment+crime=No go to go go, secure new jobs, Hulme Bridge
-Crescent shaped flats, noisy, poorly built, escape routes for drugs+crime= flats decapitates and made into homes, buy to let houses
-Ethnic segragation, police were racist= witness protection, more policing
-Government didn't want to invest= £400 mil was spent, houses sell for 170k 

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Brownfield and Greenfield sites

Brownfield sites: A site that has been built on before(urban areas)

+ Less countryside is lost due to housing, revived areas,people do not have to travel long distances
-Much more expensive than greenfield sites, built up areas often surrounded by run down areas

Greenfield Sites: Sites that have not been built on before (often rural)
+Relatively cheap once the site has been purchased and a quick way to build more houses, layout can be easily planned
-valuable farmland, attractive/scenic areas of land lost,wildlife and habitats lost,urban sprawl is encouraged

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New Towns (Milton Keynes)

> designed to increase economic development
>Housing of good quality and relatively inexpensive 

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Sustainable cities: Curitiba

Capital and largest city of the Brazillian state of Parana (220 miles south west of Sao Paulo)
Suffered- Rapid urban growth= mass unemployment, transport congestion, lack of basic services, uncontrolled growth of squatter settlements

How is it sustainable?
Natural drainage was preserved, certain low-lying areas are off limits , parks now have new trees, exisiting buildings have been converted into leisure centres,reduced use of fossil fuel, encouraged public transport, keeping waste production to a minimal 

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Coastal Erosion

Difference between weathering and erosion:
Weathering= Physical breaking of rock (In-situ)
Erosion= Break down and movement of rock

Diagram of waves:
Break because= In shallow water there is more friction at the bottom of the wave (slows down) but the momentum continues therefore it will topple over (break)

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Coastal Erosion

Swash= The movement of water up the beach after a broken wave
Backwash= The movement of water back down the beach

Factors Affecting Wave Size:
Fetch- distance of opensea over which the wind has blown> the further the fetch the larger the waves.
Strength- The stronger the wind, the larger the wave
Duration-(Direction) The longer the wind blows over the surface of the water, the larger the waves
Gradient and Depth- Waves break early in shallow water- the steeper the offshore gradient, the larger the wave

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Weathering- Decomposition of rock insitu due to atmospheric processes(weather)
Mass Movement- Soil and rock move down slope due too gravity
Erosion- The mechanical process of wearing rocks down
Transportation- Materials moved from one place to another
Deposition- The process of laying down material
Abrasion- Erosion by friction of pebbles and sand against rock
Attrition- The breakdown of rocks as they collide with one another
Solution- The chemical breakdown  of rocks as they are dissolved
Hydraulic A- The breakup of rock as waves force air into cracks in the rock
Longshore Drift- Sand moves along the beach as waves approach the beach at an angle
Traction- Beach material being moved along the sea bed
Saltation- The leaping movement of particles as they are transported in water
Suspension- Fine particles are carried in water
Headland- An area of more resistant rock , jutting out to sea
Bay- An indentation into the shoreline, often with a beach
Cliff- A steep high faced rock
Hard engineering- Permenant structures aimed to reduce erosion
Soft Engineering- Non-Permenant structures aimed to reduce erosion 

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Concordant or Discordant?

Concordant(Coves)- If the layers of rock alternate between hard and soft rock then erosion rates will be different E.G) Dorset

Discordant (Headlands and bays)- Layers of hard and soft rock are at right angles to the shoreline  

E.g) What is a cove and why does it form on a concordant coastline?
> Eroded circular section
>Sea has broken through a narrow entrance and eroded rock behind
> The lines hard + soft rock run parallel to the coastline meaning the waves crash and erode the weaknesses in the rock

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Erosional landforms

Headlands and Bays:
> Some parts are made out of hard and soft rock.
> As the waves crash against the cliff they are more likely to erode softer rock
>The=is forms bays and the hard rocks thats left is a headland

Caves, arches, stacks and stumps:
> All produced along a headland
>Over time the waves erode weaknesses producing caves, this then gets bigger until it reaches the otherside=arch. The arch gets wider and becomes weaker and one day the roof collapses leaving a stack. This stack will be eroded into a stump. 

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How do cliffs erode?

Hard rock:
1) Hardrock will be eroded at the wave attack zone (jagged wave cut notch)=overhang
2) Eventually the overhang cannot be supported (HA) so it will collapse
3) All the rocks and sediment at the base are then carried away(swash)

Soft rock:
1) The base of the cliff is eroded after rain (saturated)
2)Due to the weight the cliff will slump
3) Eventually all the material will be deposited at the bottom and carried away by the waves easily. 

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Formation of a wave cut platform + spit

Wave cut platform:
> rocky, gently sloping shelf extending from the base of a cliff
> The cliff will be composed of a resistant rock
>Erosion against the base of a cliff at high tide, hurling material and wearing away through abrasion
>HA +abrasion create a wave cut notch- the overhang becomes to heavy and collapses
> the material is carried away 
 >long narrow ridge of sand where one end is part of the coastline and the other extends out to sea- formed by deposition
>Formed by the prevailing wind blowing at an angle on the coastline creating longshore drift.= deposited at a bend in the coastline
>The sediment builds up - most spits have a rounded edge (wind shapes it)

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Longshore drift

>moves beach material from one place to another in a zigzag movement due to waves approaching at an angle

>Prevailing wind blows water at angle, Swash of waves moves material up the beach, Backwash moves the material 90 deg to the coastline down the direction  of the steepest slope due to gravity- repeats 

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Hollbeck Hall

>Was a hotel that stoof 50 metres away from the sea
> The landlip took over 100 metres wide and 250 metres deep

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Coastal Management strategies

Vertical Wall-Protect land from erosion and flooding by rebounding waves
+Very effective and hardwearing
-Undermined at base, very expensive, unattractive

Curved Sea Wall- Reflect waves energy back out to sea
+No maintenance, hardwearing, less damage to base
- Very expensive, unattractive

Rock/wooden Groynes-Stop beach material moving along the coast by LSD
+effective at building up beaches, repairable
-only last 25yrs, danger to swimmers, unattractive

Gabions- absorb rock energy
+fairly attractive, cheap
-easily damaged, only last 10 years

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Coastal Management strategies

Revetments-Absorbs energy
+Prevents undercutting of cliff,lets some sediment through
-can be damaged, only last 15yrs
Rip Rap-Rocks absorb energy
+absorbs energy,rocks are available, looks natural
-needs replenishing, catches rubbish, expensive
Beach replenishment- builds up a barrier which absorbs energy
+cheap, looks natural
-affects the location taken from-needs to be regulary replenished
Stabilising Sand dunes-adding vegitation, doesnt allow ater through
+cheap, ecofriendly
-can only be used where dunes exist
Managed retreat-letting some areas flood
+encourages development of beaches +salt marshes, cheap
People would need to be compensated

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Holderness coastline

> fastest eroding coastlines in NW Europe= problems with coastal management
> at least 30 villages have been lost since roman times
>Soft rock (boulder clay)- ice sheet carrying mud and stones extrem. soft (1.7m a year)
> saturation

>Mapleton> 2 groynes stop LSD (but a farmer 3ft a year to 30ft)
>Withernsea>curved sea walls (deflect energy), and rip rap
Easington>huge gas terminal 12m away was the sea 

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Sea Level Rise

How do we know?
1) evidence in the landscape (grad. covered geographical features)
2) evidence from measurements (constant monitoring)
3) evidence from observations (indian islands are 1m above sea level)

1)Melting of polar ice sheets
2)Thermal expanison of water
3) Melting of mountain glaciers 

Eustatic- Larger volume

Isostatic- When land is sinking into the water(submerges) appearing like there's a rise in sea level 

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Sea Level Rise in London

The lower Thames Estuary:
>185 mile flood wall in 1982 by the Queen, water levels would be as high as lamposts,
Management Realignment

Environmental- Sewage, habitats destroyed,stagnant water=disease
Social-Tube stations,1mil rehoused people,evacuation, 200 schools would close, roads and communications would be cut off,over 500k homes would be flooded
Economic-lose investment,shops and businsesses close,housing insurance would increase,a days closure of one tube station is £0.75mil 

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Urban Segragation-Clear groups in society,easier to class someone rather than understand them
Violent effects:
>many diff ethnic groups

northern cities:
people are more used to multi-culturalism in the south and ww2 the manufactoring cities were in the north meaning immigrants will have moved there 

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Coastal flooding in Bangladesh

Salt industry- Located close to the coastline and will be completely ruined if the sea level were to rise> high unemployment
Tourism- underthreat because facilities are close to the coastline
Ecosystems-habitats/species will be lost
Infrastructure- aid cannot be reached due to poor transportation systems
Food-shortages of food, increased poverty
land loss- a 0.3m sea level= 8000km (5%) land area lost 

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Ainsdale sand dunes

Location- Sefton Coast, west coast in england( N of Liverpool,near southport)
Environmental characteristics and ecological importance :
>many rare species of plants(450) including 33 which are incredibly rare like Petalwort, yellowpartsla etc..
> rare animals like the natterjack toad and red squirrels etc
-Invasion of non-native species-n rabbits used to help with this but since myxomotosis the no.s have increased
-tourists could damage wildlife 
-fertiliser is used for gold courses
-desirable location for houses
Management strategies:
>zoning system (permit only sancturies)
>signs + guided walks/board walks
>facilities concentrated in car parks and things(reduce environmental impact)
> breeding pools and reintroducing rabbits

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How do coastal areas provide a unique habitat for

Creation of dunes= sand is blown of beach,carries on but stops when reaches obstruction,plants will colonise, gows
Yellow dunes:
Good conditions for plants, 5-10m, rabbit droppings enrich sand,marram grass dominates
Dune slack- ground between more mature dunes where surface water exists
Mature Dunes- most several hundred metres away from shore,develop soil,home to animals e.g red squirrel
Grey Dune-much less salty,more sheltered,veg could cover 100%,
Embryo and fore dunes- tolerant of salt and marram grass 


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Increase in tourism

More disposable income: Nowadays people have better paid jobs so they have left ove rmoney which they may spend on a holiday(luxuries) or people may have fewer children resulting in the same thing.

The Media: Shown a variety of many nice holidays so that will encourage many people

Cheap package holidays: Many airlines (easyjet) offer cheap holidays (all inclusive)

Onine Booking: Enabled people to book holidays online rather than leave their homes (more convenienant)

Need for travel: Many people want to relax

Improved Tech: It is faster and more efficient 

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Tourism- People are required to travel and stay away from home for at least one night: includes holidays etc.
Infastructure-Services for both locals and tourists eg transport etc.
Multiplier effect-Growth in one area encourages another area
Disposible income- Excess money usually spent on luxuries
Seasonal job- A job done during certain times of the year eg a beach lifeguard
Niche Market- Attracts a specific type of person
Butler's model- Graph showing the relationship between tourist numbers over time
Decline-Hotels close, fewer tourists visit etc.
Regeneration-Private and public money is used to improve a resort
Mass Tourism- Large scale tourism
Leakage-Money spent by tourists doesnt go back to local economy
National Park- Protected area of 'outstanding natural beauty'
Package holidays- A holiday with a price including accomadation/food etc.
Eco-tourism- Tourism that protects the environment,local cultures etc
Extreme tourism-Tourism to places with difficult physical conditions eg antarctica
Wilderness- Undeveloped area with little/no impact from humans
Sustainability- Meeting the needs of today with compromising the needs of the future 

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Benefits and costs of tourism

-creates jobs,consumption of local food is a pleasure, phenominal spending power,the need to attract and accomodate tourists normally stimulates the development of local infrastructure
 Benefits: Social
-standing of living improves 

-only a very small amount of the money spent actually goes to the locals
-The rush to develop infrastructure could put a strain on the economy
-force local people of lands 

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External factors affecting tourist numbers

Natural disasters
Economic downtown
Airline worrys

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Butler's model


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Phuket, Thailand

> tropical island in the SW> area of mass tourism>
In 1976=20k tourists
In 1989=2.1 million tourists
Patong Bay: Parasailing, Thai cooking class, Batik painting, and elephant trekking (diffferent)=new experience
Chalong Bay- go sailing and see Wat Chaleng temple 

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Tourism in Antartica

began in 1950s on a small scale
managed by?:
IAATO (International Association Of Antartica Tour Operators)
ensure that tourism is conducted in safe and eco friendly way
How many tourists per year?
Grown from a few hundred to the total of 37,552 visitors in 2006-7
They visit ice-free zones(some go to the Antarctic peninsula and others Weddell sea)
SIghtseeing,hiking,wildlife sites,kayaking,mountaineering,camping,scuba diving
Managed landings?
approx, 1-3hour (max 100)
1-3 landings per day
one member of staff every 10-20 tourists

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Management in Antarctica

-take years for rubbish to decompose, food chain relys on krill, non-native species could have a huge impact 

How is it protected?
-The IAATO look after Antarctica
-Boats are limited to 500 passengers
-Tourists not allowed within 5m of wildlife
-Double hills (oil)
-cannot visit SSSIs
-all rubbish must be removed 

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Eco-tourism: Kenya

Main aims:
-Minimise impact on environ
-Build environ awareness and cultural awareness and respect
-positive experiences for both visitors and hosts
-direct benefits for people

Main attractions:
Masai Mara: National Park, see nature in its true form, safari
Mt Kenya: Mountain sports, sceneary+ wildlife
Coastlines: Warm oceans,sandy beaches

Porini Camps:
-camps are inpermenant, all is run by sustainable lighting
-18 visits at one time
-Money goes towards schools etc
-alternative energy, waste management,water conservation and wildlife conflict resolution 

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