3 Green House Gases
Methane, Carbon Dioxide, Nitrus Oxide
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How have green house gases changed since 1850?
Level of them has risen from 280PPM to 394PPM Today. Level has never been higher. Rate of increase has sped up.
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Why are green house gases so vital to earth?
Retain heat from the sun which would otherwise be left in space. Keeps the earth at habitable temperature.
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Climate Change Impacts on a developing country - Bangladesh.
In the North West it's prone to droughts. Frequent cyclones. 10% of land lost to sea, landless and lack of food. Water shortages - Famine.
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3 pieces of evidence climate change was colder in the past.
1) Baltic sea froze over. 2) Greenland impossible to survive. 3) Glaciers advanced in the alps.
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3 Causes of climate change.
1) Volcanic Eruptions 2) Sunspot activity. 3) Changes in the earths orbit and rotation.
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2 Characteristics of Tsunami
Speed = 900km/h Heights = 20-30m
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Shield Volcanoes
Large surface area. Made up of lava. Erupt frequently.
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Composide Volcanoes
Small surface area. Made up of ash and lava. Erupt infrequently.
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What is a hotspot?
isolated column of hot material rising in the mantle, created by a convection plume in the mantle. a location for volcanoes.
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2 Characteristics of the mantle
Temp = 1600 - 4000
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Ways buildings can be designed to cope with earthquakes.
Foundations built deep. shock absorbers. cross bracing, stops floors collapsing. Reduce weight on roofs. Hollow bricks.
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Impacts of a hazard depends on...
Size of the event. Vulnerability of the population. Capacity of population and how they will cope.
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Primary impacts of an earthquake.
Things that happen immediatly. For example - Building falling down.
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Secondary impacts of an earthquake.
Lack of resources and spread of disease. Also the water becomes polluted - cholera.
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2 Characteristics of the crust.
Its a solid. Made up of graphite.
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Port Au Prince Earthquake, Haiti (Developing)
Primary - Over 300,000 deaths. Economic loss of 8.5 Billion. Secondary - 7000 people killed. 10 Million homeless. Chorea spread. Magnitude - 7.0
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Canterbury New Zealand Earthquake. Developed.
Primary - Mag - 7.1. 0 Deaths, 100 injured. Total damage to property - 8.5 billion. People asleep so deaths were low. Secondary - aftershock mag - 6.3. kills 185 people
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Mount Merapi Indonesia Volcano
275 people died. 570 injured. 10km danger zone around volcano. farm land destroyed. loss of 600mil. tourism reduced.
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Dormant volcano...
No activity for many years, but still able to erupt. Example Mauna Kea.
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Air Mass...
Large body of air with particular temperature characteristics.
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Temperature Maritime UK?
Mild and wet, due to the seas, high level of precipitation throughout year
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Examples of mega faunas.
Saber tooth tiger. Mammoth.
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Factors responsible for extinction of mega fauna...
Over hunting by ancestors. Rapid climate change and couldn't cope.
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How was europe affected by the little ice age?
Glaciers advanced affecting towns and farms. Some famine. Rivers froze over.
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Key features of little ice age.
Lasted over 500 years. Cooler than average by 1 degree. Cold winters. Glaciers in the Alps.
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Why do developing countries find it hard to conserve Eco systems.
Lack of funds to conserve - low income. Employing people to conserve costs too much.
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How does global warming affect health of tropical rain forests?
stress to tress due to the temperatures rising and change in rainfall patterns. Force animals to migrate this leads to extinction.
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Main cause of deforestation in Amazon Rainforest
Clearing for farmer to keep cattle and crops. Logging hard woods- mahogany and Teak. 'opening up' roads for farmers and loggers to access rainforest.
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Why is it hard to predict the global temperature?
Population can't be predicted and this determines how much resources are used.
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How does altitude affect the climate/.
Temp falls with altitude. Rain fall rises with altitude. The tempreature falls 1 degree every 200m
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What are the links between temperature, precipitation and biome type?
Biome type is determined by the altitude which influences temp and precipitaion
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What is a biome?
Global Scale Eco-System.
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Whre are rainforests found?
Between tropics.
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Where are deserts found?
Found in tropics, also very dry and plants have to adapt to survive.
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Whats an ecosystem?
Community of plants and animals interacting with non living physical enviroment.
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How does the biosphere regulate earths climate?
Gas exchanging from plants. this maintains the temperatureDeve. plants intercept precipitation and emit water vapor - cloud formation.
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Why do developed countries produce more green house gases?
Wealthier- use more resources - cars. more people connected to energy supplies. secondary industries.
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Madagascar CAZ Rainforest...
Some areas are given to local people to make profit. education helps farmers to sustain in one place. no slash and burn. Entry fees. conservation of a rainforest.
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Sustainable management?
Conserving environment for future. No exploitation on locals. provision for locals - poor and disadvantaged. education on how to sustain.
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Charities of conservation on the biosphere...
Global - CITES - banning trade in 34,000 species plans to stop hunting. National - Preserve landscapes - National Parks. Local - Sustainable management while protecing allowing local people to use resourses.
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3 storages of water?
1) glaciers and snow cover. 2) oceans 3) Lakes and rivers, ground waters.
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3 key processes of hydro logical cycle
water from atmosphere transfered back to surface by precipitaion, water is eventually transferred to rivers and rivers then flow to oceans.
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2 sources of water pollution
radioactive waste. plant fertilizers - nitrates in rivers and animals die.
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2 ways deforestation reduces water supply.
1) without trees, surface runoff increases and infiltration decreases, groundwater levels in Kahama have fallen and rivers flow seasonally. 2) Major floods have increased because interception by trees has reduced.
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Over abstraction of ground water in India.
65% of crop water & 15% drinking water from groundwater wells. water tables are falling by 4m every year as more water taken than returned. farmers always pump water using pumps. unsustainable O-A - 60% of groundwater supplies will be bad by 2020.
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Hoover Dam costs..
850 million. Almost no water reaches the sea. States and cities argue over who gets the water.
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Hoover Dam benefits..
Supplies Las Vegas and city farms in California with water. Popular for recreation and fishing.Water supply clean, low cost & reliable. Major tourist attraction. Generates 2 gigawatts of electricty.
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3 Gorges Dam costs..
26 billion to build. Increasingly dirty and polluted. Animals extinct - Chinese river dolphin.
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3 Gorges Dam benefits..
Stops floods. Generates 22.5 giggawatts of electricity. Water supply to locals is better.
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Why are large scale projects good?
Water is more reliable and generates electricity.
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How to improve water supply in the developing world?
Small scale intermediate tech. benefits - saves lives by using 'life straw' it kills 99.9% bacteria and also there is 'rainwater harvesting' helps families through dry season when without rain and dried up rivers.
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Hard rock features. Example - Cornwall.
cliffs are high & vertical. landforms - caves, arches, stacks, stumps. cliffs retreat by rockfall. beaches - pebbles and boulders
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Soft rock features. Example - North Norfolk.
cliffs low gently sloping. Lanforms - no stacks or stumps, caves rare. cliffs retreat by sliding and slumping. beaches - sand or mud. wave cut platforms unusual.
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Constructive waves..
Swash stronger, travel long distance due to them spilling up the beach strongly. water soaks into the beach. waves move sand and other material up beach towards land.
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Destructive waves..
Backwash stronger, waves break steeply with little swash whereas backwash is stronger. erodes material. waves close together - rip current, this removes lots of sand creates steep beach and bar off shore.
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hydraulic action
water from waves being forced into fissures and joints making the rock fractured.
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rock and sand being thrown with force and grinding against the rock like sandpaper.
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What is the process that moves sand along the beach?
Longshaw drift.
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Method of a spit..
longshaw drift happens. coastline changes direction material deposited across the bay. if bay is closed off could become bar. if it is river it will end due to being too deep or current strong. wind direction varies creates reccured ends.
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What is the coastal land form that close of a bay?
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What does the term weathering mean?
Breakdown of rocks without movement (in situ)
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Mass Movement..
causes cliff to retreat by heavy rainfall making cliffs saturated making water flow inside the cliff exerting pressure weakening the cliff. making sand and clay loose under the cliff gravity pulls down cliff.
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Holderness coast in Yorkshire physical process'
physical process - rocks weak boulder clay, erosion fastest spring tides combind with storms. weathering and mass movement high - high rainfall and winter frosts.
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Holderness coast problems and threats.
farmland being lost. villages dissapear, land retreated over 4km. Important roads at risk as well as towns.
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What is the main process of Shoreline Management Plans?
They manage the coasts in the UK.
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The meaning of Advance the coastline?
move the coastline seaward with land reclamation - expensive.
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Meaning of hold the line ?
keep coastline in same place using hard and soft rock defenses - expensive but locals like this.
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Strategic retreat meaning?
allow coastline to move inland, allow some erosion but defend when needed - cheaper.
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Meaning of do nothing?
allow natural erosion and floods. lowest cost option. locals do not like.
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Why are some locations protected from erosion and others not?
some coastlines very hard to protect - very soft rock typesrapid rate of erosion. low lying coasts might not be protected due to rising sea levels. Some locations have valuable infrastructure and building defences can be justified Other locations lo
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Other cards in this set

Card 2


How have green house gases changed since 1850?


Level of them has risen from 280PPM to 394PPM Today. Level has never been higher. Rate of increase has sped up.

Card 3


Why are green house gases so vital to earth?


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Climate Change Impacts on a developing country - Bangladesh.


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


3 pieces of evidence climate change was colder in the past.


Preview of the front of card 5
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