Green house effect
The atmosphere allows heat from the sun to pass straight through it to warm up the earths surface. However when the earth gives off heat in the form of long wave radiation, some gases such as carbon dioxide are able to absorb it, this warms the earth
1 of 43
Enhanced green house effect
Natural greenhouse effect becomes more efficient due to human activity e.g. burning fossil fuels
2 of 43
Types of green house gases and description
Carbon dioxide - 60% of the 'enhanced green house effect, incresed by 30% since 1850. Methane - Very efficient when absorbing heat. Nitrous oxides - Very small concentrates but 300 times more efficient as absorbing heat than carbon dioxide
3 of 43
Sources of Carbon dioxie
Burning fossil fuels (e.g. oil, gas, coal), car exhausts, deforestation, respiration, volcanic activity
4 of 43
Sources of methane
Decaying organic material in landfill sites and compost tips, rice farming
5 of 43
Sources of nitrouse oxides
Car exhausts, power stations producing electricity, sewage treatments
6 of 43
Pleistocenee period
Geological time period lasting from bout 2 million years ago until 10,000 years ago. Sometimes this period is referred to the ice age
7 of 43
Cold periods of time
8 of 43
Warm periods of time
9 of 43
Evidence of global warming
Diaries, paintings, historical records, direct measurements of temperatures (mostly after 1850), photagraphic evidence (e.g.Kilimanjaro glacier, Nepal glacier - 40% of people use the glacier for water), ice cores, early sprint
10 of 43
Ice cores
Where the water molecules and trapped air can be analysed to detect subtle changes in past temperatures. They do this by extracting ice from low in snow/ice
11 of 43
Early spring
Over the last 30 years there have been seasonal shifts and spring is coming earlier
12 of 43
Albedo affect
When the ice reflects the suns radiation
13 of 43
Thermal expansion
When the sea gets heated, it expands which means the distance it travels onto land becomes larger
14 of 43
What would happen if global warming did not exist
There would be no life on earth as the atmosphere would be too cold to survive in
15 of 43
When soloar radiation is sent down to earth from the sun light coloured surfaces... and darker coloured surfaces...
Light coloured surfaces - most solar radiation is sent back into space. Dark coloured surfaces - Most solar radiation is absorbed
16 of 43
Track of Hurrican Katrina and when it occured
Affected areas were Ontario, Georgia, Mississippi, New Orleans, Kentucky, Alabama, Cuba, Louisiana and more in SE USA. It happened on the 29th August 2005, tropical storm in rich countries
17 of 43
Track of cyclone Nargis and when it occured
It affected India, Bangladesh, yangon, Sri lanka and Myanmar. It occured on the 2nd of May 2008
18 of 43
Social effects of Hurrican Katrina
More than 1,800 people died, 3000,000 houses destroyed, 3 million left without electricity, a main route in New Otleans was closed due to a collapsed bridge.
19 of 43
Social effects of Cyclone Nargis
More than 140,000 people were killed, 450,000 houses were destroyed, 2-3 million people were made homeless, 1,700 schools were destroyed
20 of 43
Economic effects of Hurricane Katrina
$300 billion of damage, 230,000 jobs were lost due to businesses being destroyed, 30 offshore oil platforms sunk or went missing (increasing the price of fuel), shops in New Orleans were looted by residents in days after the hurricane
21 of 43
Economic effects of Cyclone Nargis
$4 billion damage, millions of people lost their livelihoods, 200,000 farm animals were killed, Crops were lost, over 40% of food stores were destroyed
22 of 43
Environmental effects of Hurricane Katrina
The hurrican caused the sea to flood parts of the land and destroyed some costal habitats e.g. sea turtles breeding beaches
23 of 43
Environmental effects of Cyclone Nargis
Coastal habitats such as mangrove forests were damaged, the salt content of the soil in some areas has increased because of the flooding by the sea water, this means it is more difficult for plants to grow
24 of 43
Short and long term responses of Hurricane Katrina
Short - During the storm the coastal guard, police, fire service, army and volunteers rescued over 50,000 people, 25,000 were given temporary shelter in Louisiana stadium, Long - $34 billion given for rebuilding
25 of 43
Short and long term responses of Cyclone Nargis
Short - Burmas government initially refused foreign aid, UN launched a massive appeal to raise money. Long - Burma is relying on the international aid to repair the damage, fewer than 20,000 homes were rebuilt + 500,000 still in temporary shelters
26 of 43
Preparation for Hurrican Katrina
USA has a sophisticates monotoring system to predict when a hurrican will hit (e.g. satellite images), Mississippi and Louisians delared states of emergency on 26th August, 70-80% New Orleans residents were evacuated before the hurricane reached
27 of 43
Preparation of cyclone Nargis
Inian and Thai weather agencies warned the Burmese govenment that the cyclone was likely to hit the country. Despite this, Burmese forecasters reported there was little or not risk, no emergency of evacuation plans
28 of 43
Etreme weather
Weather that is not what is expected normally. It occurs relatively rarely but may last longer than expected. It may break met office records, e.g. droughts, heavy snow, floods, strong winds or thick fog
29 of 43
How do we prepare for extreme weather
Flood defences along rivers can be improved, education programs can tell the puplic the best ways to cope with a flood, droughs or heatwaves, we have resources and technology to predict and monitor the occurence of storms e.g. using satellites
30 of 43
Weather warnings
They warn the public and emergncy responders of severe hazardous weather which could have the potntial to cause danger to life or buildings. The warnings include the use of radiios, TV, met office website, social media, smart phone apps, RSS
31 of 43
Impacts of global warming in australia
Symbiosis, seas getting warmer which can kill the coral with just a 2-3 degree rise (less tourism for coral), If sea levels rise there will be less light + oxygen for coral, climate change increases storms which damages coral
32 of 43
Impacts of global warming in the Arctic
The polar bears need ice to catch the seals but the ice is melting, 50% decline in polar bears in some areas, all the ice may completely melt
33 of 43
Impacts of global warming in the UK
Intensive agriculture will be able to spread North, Arctic plants in Scotland may become extinct, Sea levels could rise 26-28cm by 2080 in SE, coastal erosion on sorft rock coastlines, winter weather may provide extra power for wind turbines
34 of 43
Saturated ground
The soil is already filled up (e.g. with water) and it can't hold any more
35 of 43
Boscastle flash flood
Afternoon, Monday 16th August 2004, cornish village, 200mm of rainfall in 24 hours, most of it hit in just 5 hours, average rainfall in august is normally 75mm
36 of 43
Causes of the Boscastle flood
Saturated ground, narrow valley, the landcape upstream acts as a funnel directing vast volumes of water into the village, impermable surfaces (tarmac), narrow river channels in the valley
37 of 43
Short term and long term effects of Boscastle flood
Short - 58 buildings flooded, 25 businesses destroyed, 84 wrecked cars recovered + 32 lost. Long - £15million for the cost of surroundings, many locals and tourists were traumatised by the event and suffered from increased level of stress
38 of 43
Future after the Boscastle flood
'flood defence scheme' (£4.5million), drains in the walls of rivers, rivers were made deaper and wider
39 of 43
Summer 2003 heat wave and drought
More than 20,000 people died after record breaking heatwave in Europe, warmest from up to 500 years, highest temps recorded in Europe, due to high pressure and winds bringing hot tropical air to the UK, max temp of 38.5, result in advanced warning
40 of 43
Physical impact of the summer 2003 heatwave and drought
Low river flows and lake levels - some rivers fell to their lowest levels in 100 years, bombs from WW2 were revealed, forrest fires, melting glaciers
41 of 43
Human, environmental and social effects of the summer 2003 heatwave and drought
Human - heat stroke, dehidration, sunburn, air pollution, drowning. Environmental/social - Water supplies were effected, tourism increased, agriculture died, transport, London eye closed, energy
42 of 43
Immediate responses of the summer 2003 heatwave and drought
France requested aid from Europe, public water supply shortages which lead to a ban on hose pipes, workers altered their hours
43 of 43

Other cards in this set

Card 2


Enhanced green house effect


Natural greenhouse effect becomes more efficient due to human activity e.g. burning fossil fuels

Card 3


Types of green house gases and description


Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4


Sources of Carbon dioxie


Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5


Sources of methane


Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards


No comments have yet been made

Similar Geography resources:

See all Geography resources »See all Weather and climate resources »