Indigenous Rights and Resistence to Globalisation

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  • Indigenous rights and resistance to globalisation
    • Genocide and ethnocide
      • Genocide is the deliberate killing of groups of people particular to a nation or ethnic group
        • Hutu/Tutsu in Rwanda where Tutsi's culture were being murdered by Hutu's in attempt to eradicate their culture
      • Ethnocide is the deliberate and systematic destruction of the culture of an ethnic group
      • Causes of ethnic conflicts
        • Erkisen: land issues and territorial conflicts including deterritorialisation
        • Social memory and history, power asymmetry and dominance over indigenous people (Cormaroff)
    • Globalisation and homogenisation
      • Globalisation is the process by which businesses or other organisations develop international influence or start operating on an international scale
        • Globalisation threatens the idea of idenity as it reminds people that they actually like and want to be unique
        • It increases contact between different ethnic groups due to modern technology
      • Homogenisation: to make uniform or similar
        • Many indigrnous groups choose aspects of globalisation that they like such as phones, TV but reject those that contrast with their beliefs
        • Harris found that the Inca and Maya tribes assimilated white knowledge into their but kept traditional medicine and rituals
        • Languages have homgenised too, some countries speak entirely English others mix such as "Singlish"
      • The Ainu
        • Japan didn't recognise the existence of minorities and called them a underdeveloped group
        • The Ainu reclaimed their rights an an ethnicity through commodification of their culture - they made themselves a tourist destination and attraction
          • This is an example of a revitialist movement
    • Human Rights made in 1948
      • Universality vs. relativism
        • The rights should be representative of the entire world, but are based on modern Europe philosophy and so are relativistic when they should be universalistic
          • Some anthropologists point out that expecting those rights to be applicable in places in such as Africa is a ethnocentric error
        • However it is understood that HR must be offered to everyone despite cultures and values - this is universalistic
        • Wilson points out that human rights can be interpreted differently in different socieities
      • Human Rights and local context
        • HR are focused on promoting individuals rights addressing for example gender issues
          • But what about the cultural right?  expressing and belonging to a community
            • The AAA issued a staement that cultural rights should be encouraged as long as they comply with international principles for HR
      • Human Rights and gender and equality
        • Gender
          • The US has yet to join, if they did many would follow as they are the cultural superpower globally
          • Belarus says that the re-introduction of traditional women roles through Mother's day imposes western-feminists views around the world
        • Children
          • Child soldiers for boys and sexual slavery for girls
          • Forced marriage in rural India and Sudan
      • The Sawi in Guinea
        • They practiced cannibalism and sacrificing widows during funerals
        • The Dutch forced them to stop, thus have been accused of cultural imperialism

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