Medicine Individuals

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  • Created by: Myhero
  • Created on: 31-05-18 16:58
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  • Discovered that the jaw bone was made of one piece not two like Galen said
    • Respected Galen but proved him wrong
  • Joseph Lister (18th & 19th)
    • After Pasteur's Germ Theory Joseph experimented with carbolic acid spray to produce the first antiseptic
      • Greatly reduced the chances of patients dying from infections-allowed for longer and more complex ooperations
        • Oppostition at first as some surgeons refused to believe Pasteur's theory
          • 1867 Published his work and said that doctors and nurses should wash their hands with carbolic acid before operations
  • Robert Koch  (18th & 19th)
    • Him and his team used Pasteur's work to discover the bacteria that caused individual diseases
      • Once the bacteria was identified they could develop vaccines
        • His methods were copied by others scientists who also discovered bacteria
  • Florence Nightingale
    • Improved conditions in hospitals and the training of nurses
      • During the Crimean war 1854-56 she improved hygiene and cleanliness for wounded soldiers
        • Provided clean water and clothes
          • Made sure that the soldiers were well fed and taken care of
  • Alexander Fleming 1928
    • Discover by accident when he left a pile of petri dishes containing bacteria before going on holiday
      • When he returned he noticed that around the mould staphylococci bacteria had disappeared
        • Howard Florey & Ernst Chain
          • 1938 Read Fleming's work and investigated how germs could be killed
            • 1941 enough penicillin to test on a person Policeman-Albert Alexander
              • They kept recycling his urine to get as much as possible, but they eventually ran out and he died.
            • tried to get funding from the British government, but they could only give them £25 because of the war
              • 1944 British firms were mass producing penicillin to treat allied forces on D-day
                • 1945 After the war ended penicillin was manufactured and used by everyone
  • Edwin Chadwick (18th & 19th)
    • Public health activist
      • Believed in miasma
        • suggested that good sanitation, drainage, ventilation would make people healthier.
          • Found that poor living conditions and diseases linked together
            • Led to the public health act 1848.
              • Not compulsory
              • collected taxes for public health improvements improving water supplies and sewerage disposials.
  • Joseph Bazalgette (18th & 19th)
    • recurring epidemics of cholera. In 1853 - 1854 more than 10,000 Londoners were killed
      • 1858 created the 'Great Stink of London'
        • 1866 most of London was connected to a sewer network devised by Bazalgette.
          • the flow of foul water from old sewers and underground rivers was intercepted, and diverted along new, low-level sewers, built behind embankments on the riverfront and taken to new treatment works.
  • Paul Ehrlich 1910
    • Magic bullet
      • SALVERSAN 606
        • used to treat syphilis.
          • wasn’t completely safe. It could kill the disease-causing microbes, but the patient as well.
        • first time a chemical compound had been used to destroy bacteria.
      • Taken internally via tablet or injection they only target harmful bacteria without harming any healthy tissue
  • Gerharot Domagk 1932
    • PRONTOSIL
      • experimented with mice at first-good results
        • Had an effect on the bacteria which cause blood poisoning
          • Tried it on his daughter when she developed severe blood poisoning- first time that it was tested on a human
            • very risky as his daughter was close to death
      • Second magic bullet
    • Sulphonamides led to development of drugs To cure gonorrhoea, pneumonia, meningitis and scarlet fever.
      • Paul Ehrlich 1910
        • Magic bullet
          • SALVERSAN 606
            • used to treat syphilis.
              • wasn’t completely safe. It could kill the disease-causing microbes, but the patient as well.
            • first time a chemical compound had been used to destroy bacteria.
          • Taken internally via tablet or injection they only target harmful bacteria without harming any healthy tissue
  • Wilhelm Roentgen (18th & 19th)
    • First X-ray 1895
      • Quickly located shrapnel led to surgery being able to take place quicker
  • Karl Landsteiner
    • Discovered different blood groups
      • A,B and O
        • 1902 AB was discovered
  • Thomas Splint
    • Used to help fractured bones, reduce blood loss, reduced the number of deaths by having a femeur, thigh bone broken by gunfire was 80% then 20%
  • Crick and Watson 1986-2001
    • discovered the structure of DNA using electron microscopes
      • Built on existing knowledge-Rosaline Frankline
    • Created new techniques  such as crystallography

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