- Impact on participation in elections (Parry 1992 & Evans 1997)
- People under 35 are less likely to voice, they are more interested in direct action.
- Socialisation & Personality
- Family beliefs/ traditions
- Family background is an important determinant
- Whether children are involved in political discussion
- Social Class
- Upper class = majority would be spectators or gladiators
- Blue collar are more likely to vote Labour
- White collar are more likely to vote conservative
- Ethnic Origin
- High turn out of Jewish population
- Low turn out of African-Caribbean
- Location of Residence
- Participation is more likely in urban areas than rural.
- Inner cities have a high turn out.
- Men are traditionally more likely to vote, but recently women have begun to become more active.
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