Key Words: Citizenship Unit 1

Chapter 1-8 of the revision guide key words


Chapter 1: What is a citizen/perceptions of being

Citizen - a person who is a member of a country or state

State - the organisations responsible for running the country and services at both local and national level

Citizenship - belonging to a state as a citizen; participating in a community

Rights - the benefits of being a citizen (this context)

Responsibilities - (duties) thngs citizens are expected to do

Democracy - a system of government in which citizens are able to influence government decisions

Constitutional monarchy - a form of government in which a monarch recognises Parliament as the cheif law maker

Constitution - a set of rules that describe which institutions hold power within a state

Welfare state - used to describe a system where a government taxes citizens to provide social services to those that need them

Culture - usual customs or beliefs of a group of people with shared heritage or history

Referendum - a yes or no vote for citizens on a single important issue

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Chapter 2: How socially diverse is Britain?

Migration - moving away from one place to another

Immigration - moving into a country from another

Emigration - moving out of a country to another

Net migration - the difference between those immigrating and those emigrating

Social diversity - the variety and differences in identities of people

Multicultural - describes a culture comprising a variety of ethnic groups, creating a collective culture

Ethnic integration - different ethnic groups becoming part of one culture

Stereotyping - over-simplification or generalised impression of a group's identity or behaviour

Labelling - a process of giving names to behaviour and/or groups of people

New media - info that use computers or the internet rather than TV and newspapers

Mass media - organisations that produce all forms of media for a vast audience

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Chapter 3: Prejudice, discrimination and disadvant

Predjudice - beliefs that one group or aspect of identity is better or worse than another

Discrimination - acting on prejudiced beliefs, treating a person or group of people differently

Xenophobia - extreme irrational fear of foreigners

Life chances - oppertunities available to individuals or social groups

Meritocray - society in which people have power because of their abilities, not because of their money or social position

Nepotism - using your job or influence to get good jobs or unfair advantages for your own family

Social mobility - the movement of individuals or groups in social position

Underclass - a group in society who, over generations, are excluded from normal society because they are either unable to break the poverty cycle or are vulnerable and isolated or criminal

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Chapter 4: How can discrimination+disadvantage be

Equal opportunity - the principle that all people have the same opportunities in life

Legislation - a law or set of laws suggested by a government and made official by parliament

Policies - plans made by government or organisations to try tackle certain issues. Policies may be made by parties whiching to be elected into government. If successful gov tries turns to law

Anti-discrimination policy - laws and actions designed to challenge discrimination and prejudice. Can be part of school policy, council policy or government policy

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Chapter 5: What are rights?

Rights - privileges, liberties, powers and immunities that are recognised by a legal system (in this context)

Statute - a law made by Parliament (also known as an 'Act')

Criminal law - area of law that is concerned with the state bringing proceeding against an individual to punish them for a breach in the law

Civil law - area of law that is concerned with disputes between an individual and another (including companies or organisations)

Relative duties - duties that have a corresponding right

Absolute duties - duties that don't have a corresponding right

Claim right - a right that infers a corresponding duty to the right-holder. This means that someone else must do or refrain from doing something to or for the claim holder

Liberty right - a freedom or permission to do something, no corresponding duties or obligations owed by anyone else to enable a right

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Chapter 6: What rights do I have?

Parliamentary sovereignty - the principle that Parliament is the supreme law maker

The European Convention on Human Rights - a treaty made by the countries who signed it, agreeing to give their citizens the basic rights contained within it

The Human Rights Act 1998 - an act of Parliament which incorporated the ECHR into UK law

Scrutiny - careful and detailed examination of something in order to establish its facts

The Data Protection Act (DPA) 1998 - aimed to protect information held on an individual and to allow access to a person's information if they request it

The Freedom of Information Act (FOIA) 2000 - aimed to ensure that citizens can ask public authorities if they hold any information on a particular subject. Aimed to achive more transparency in terms of government activites

Transparency - a situation whereby activities are done in an open way without secrets. This is to ensure fairness and honesty

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Chapter 7: The legal framework:protecting citizens

Morality - a set of standards for behaviour, the guidelines for a belief about what is right and wrong

Defamation - to damage the reputation of a person or group by saying or writing things about them that aren't true

Party - one of the people or groups of people involved in an official argument or arrangement

Probate - the legal administration of a deceased person's will

Assets - something valuable that belongs to a person e.g. their house

Conveyancing - the legal process of buying and selling a house

Lawyers - general term to describe a person skilled in the law

Negotiation - parties involved discuss issues and compramise or make a desicion for resolvement

Mediation - parties discuss disputes with neutral third party who helps with agreement

Conciliation - conciliation is used to help resolve dispute with more active role

Arbitration - the process where parties agree to have their dispute heard by private arbitrator who makes the decision

Ombudsmen - an official who is appointed to check on gov activity

Tribunals - inferior courts who deal with a large number of cases with subject variety

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Chapter 8: How do the courts protect my rights?

Tort - a cival wrong committed by an idividual against another where the defendant owed a duty to the claimant, was in breach of that duty and consequently caused loss or damage

Habeas corpus - latin term meaning 'let us have the body'. A person who has been detained has the right to question the legality of their detention. Applicants for Habeas corpus take priority of all other business in court

Judical review - the process by which an individual can ask a court to decide if a public body has acted lawfully or not

Ultra vires - latin term that means 'beyond the powers'

Natural justice - the concept held within the legal systems of all democratic countries that certain principles are fundamental to any decision-making process. The two main rules are nobody should be a judge in their own case and both sides have a right to be heard

Damages - the payment of compensation

Injuncton - an order preventing the defendant from some act

Declaration - a statement of the law and rights and responsibilities of the parties

Mandatory Order - an order to an inferior court or public body telling it to do something

Prohibiting Order - order that prevents tribunal or a public authority from doing something that could be subject to a quashing order

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Can someone explain the Claim Right mentioned in this

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