unit 2

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  • Created on: 18-03-16 11:01

Concept and Nature of Power

power- The ability to achieve certain aims, politics uses it to govern

authority- The ability to exercise power with legitimacy and justification

mandate- The permission where citizens give the government authority

democracy- A state ruled by people were the citizens vote for their government

influence- Using power to affect the decisions which affect other people’s lives


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the power of modern state and make up of parliamen

—Derived from the people within it —In the UK, the heart of the power lies on the Houses of Parliament —Laws are created which the population must follow —Candidates elected by the citizens mist have their best interests in mind —Laws are debated the agreed on —To state can enforce these laws though a judiciary —By doing this power is separated

Legislatures–Power to make laws. Parliament MPs. Examine, debate and vote on bil

Executive –Power to put laws into action. Prime Minister, Cabinet Minister. Decide policy, draft bills and enforce acts.

Judiciary – Power to make judgments on law. Judges. Hear and decide cases, applying to law.

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political power

—In the UK there are 25 political parties

—The 3 largest are

—Labour, Conservatives and Liberal Democrats

—These have the most influence

—The rest can still be in control of their local constituencies

—Some parties have a stronghold in some areas

—Party leaders are the most powerful an influential

—When a party loses faith in this person they are forced to resign

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multinational groups

—MNC – A company which acts in 2 or more country —This enables them to make larger profits —They employ 1,000s of people —They can choose whether to operate in low labour areas —This is often subject to ethnical criticism —This impacts wages, skills and the environment —Offers jobs and skills to the unemployed —Some companies influence the government due to the large amounts of money available —They can afford to fund campaigns —Citizens have a large influence over them because they are the consumers

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economic power and control

—Those with the most money have the most power, and are therefore in control —The countries with the most power are the most industrially developed and resource rich —A states wealth is directly linked to it’s influence on global affairs —However more recently, wealth is based upon complex interrelations between states —Economic power becomes more interdependent on the power of other states —Therefore it is more difficult to predict consumer spending —This affecting government budgets

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economic power and the state

—The UK government needs to fund public services so places taxes o income, services and products —The revenue from these taxes funds the treasury —The fund pays for National services (NHS) —The government distributes it locally and regionally —The local government then allocates the money to places where it is needed

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role of the bank of england

—The Bank of England is responsible for keeping the economy and financial system stable —It maintains the value of our money by setting interest rates to keep inflation low —This ensures steady annual growth of the economy —The value of our money depends on the prices we pay for goods and services —Price increase = £ value lessen —Inflation is when prices increase in generally therefore everything is more expensive —To keep inflation under control, the Bank of England alters rates —It works with the Financial Services Authority and government to keep the financial system stable and reliable

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—Countries are becoming more interdependent and interconnected —Many now rely on each other to make sure their economies are stable and growing —Trade internationally is easier, therefore there is improves transport and communication links —Businesses take advantage of cheap labour and low government regulation —People move more freely between countries to work —Government wealth labour and industry are spread across the globe.

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  • newspaper
  • television
  • radio
  • intenet- facebook ect
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—Buy or receive – funded through advertising space —Report the same stories. Yet different emphasis —Open to journalist interpretation —Either left/right wing = political bias —Many are strongly readers of one particular paper —64% Daily Telegraph are Conservatives —66% Daily Mirror are Labour —43% Independent are Liberal Democrats

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—Commercial profitable channels = large viewing figures —Main incentive to prospective advertisers —Transmit programs with large audiences —BBC = Inform, educate and entertain —Digital has revolutionized television function —Access to NHS advice – reducing GP appointments —Interactive has given immediate feedback —Runs the risk of exposing young people to adult content

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—Provides background noise —3rd party news delivery —Different stations have different target audiences —They tailor their items to their interest —Can reach wider audiences

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—Appeal to younger audiences —Debatable  portrayal of physical appearances —Different items on different topics to give people a wider knowledge of events —Critical of airbrushing —Blamed for eating disorders

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—Speedy and efficient way of getting information —Displays in depth information —Newspapers have sites to reach wider audiences —YouTube allows the public to be creative removing bias —Creates diversity and greater freedom —Verify authenticity

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regulating the media

—The press are free to publish stories which are of interest to the general public —If something that is false is reported, then we have the right to go to The Press Complaints Commission —As a result the publisher may be forced to give a public apology —They need to only publish items which they are sure are 100% true respecting the lives of people involved —Kerry Katona and Boris Johnson

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levels of government

—Central Government – Parliament —Ultimate authority —Chief law and policy maker —Local Government – responsible for a large local area —Understand citizen’s needs and problems —Equip the government to work better – a democracy —Regional government —England is separated in nine regional assemblies with limited powers —Only London has the right to vote for the mayor —Elected Mayors —The local government act of 2,000 gave local areas the chance to re organize their structure through having a directly elected mayor

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structure of government

—Different levels of government are funded in part through income taxes, but some services are fully provided for the citizen —Funding is allocated to those areas where it is seen as fit —Central government needs to be alerted of this —If all of the budget is not used, it is removed from the following years.

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national and devolved government

—Different levels of government are funded in part through income taxes, but some services are fully provided for the citizen —Funding is allocated to those areas where it is seen as fit —Central government needs to be alerted of this —If all of the budget is not used, it is removed from the following years.

  • national- Income TaxVATNICorporation TaxFuel Duty devolved- Grants from central govAbility to raise or decrease tax by 3%
  • regional- Grants from central government
  • local- Grants from central governmentCouncil TaxNon Domestic rate chargeOther fees
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—Bring peace, prosperity and security to Europe —To reduce the likeliness of there ever being a repeat of the horrors from WW2 —To boost economies of the countries in Europe —It was created through a number of treaties —Consists of 27 countries —Creates legislation which affects the lives of all of these

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institutions of eu and their roles

—European Commission —Propose new legislation —Ensures that EU legislation is implemented correct —Monitors the use of EU funds —The Council of the European Union —Votes, and debates on areas such as economic and financial affairs —Justice, employment, health and educational —Member states have to act as the host and chair meetings, rotationally —European Parliament —Amend, approve and reject legislation proposed by the commission before it is passed as a law —Has the power to scrutinise and dismiss all of the European commissioners —Joint budgetary authority with the Council of the EU —Each of the 27 states elect one member into the parliament based on the size of it’s population

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budget of eu

—Each member state collects money on behalf of the EU in order to form it;s budget —Gained from VAT and GNI from tax —This is used on —Sustainable growth —Training the EU workforce —Natural Resources —Tackling poverty and promoting human rights —Freedom, security and justice

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impact of eu

—Reforms assist farmers to produce better quality produce and trade worldwide —Monitors the fishing of endangered fish species —Laws state food must be labelled clearly and correctly to show whether it is GM —Has introduced health warnings on cigarette packaging (33%) —Cut mobile phone bills —Make sure consumers have as much choice as possible —EU citizens are entitled to 4 weeks paid holiday every ear with 11 hours of rest in every 24 —Parents have the right to take time off from work when their babies are born, returning to a job, and able to take time off to care for them  

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impact of eu

—Introduction of the Euro —No long passport checks moving between the countries —Pet passports —Members are obliged to clean up their beaches —Cutting energy consumption by 20%

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concepts of democracy

—Democracy: A type of government based on the principle that all people are equal and collectively hold power —Other forms of government: —Dictatorship: a single leader holds absolute power —Anarchy: no government at all —Monarch: leader is passed through family relationships —Liberal Democracy —Freedoms of the individuals are upheld and protected from government power

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representative democracy

—Citizens can elect representatives to speak for them ant form a government —Citizens have the opportunity to elect someone  to have discussions and make decisions which can affect them

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direct democracy

—Citizens are more closely involved with the democracy —Debates and makes decisions quicker —Citizens must rely on representatives to survey their opinions routinely on a variety of subjects —Offers a more concentrated democracy

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democratic values

—All citizens are legally protected and are entitled to them —Freedom means different things to different people —To advance democracy, citizens need the freedom to discuss political issues —To ensure all citizens are heard, it is necessary to have equality

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opportunities and barriers to participation

—Citizens have the opportunity to vote in an out MPs —Citizens can join campaigns, pressure groups, sign petitions and attend public meetings to show their support — —Not everyone votes —Education is the key to understanding the relevance of participation and encouraging more people to vote —

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citizens and elections

—In order to vote you must be: —Be on the electoral register —18 years old —A British citizen —Not be disqualified from voting —Members of the House of Lords —Citizens of the EU states —Convicted prisoners —Guilty of electoral corruption or illegal practices

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electrol process

—Voting may be the only time some citizens participate in politics —General Election: simultaneous election of all MPs —There is a maximum 5 years between elections —The Queen must suspend parliament while campaigning begins —The candidate with the most number of votes is declared winner of the House of Commons seat —The parties which occupies the most goes on to form a government —Some people believe that this system is unfair, and in not a fair representation of our country —Local elections have most impact as they deal with the public services which affect our daily lives —European elections has increasing impact on citizens as the y put laws in place

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what is a pressure group

—A pressure group is a group of people with a common aim or interest which they hope to use to influence the decisions made by powerful individuals —The group try  to get their voice heard —Pressure groups can be local or national —They tend to be in response to a particular problem, therefore only interest those who are willing to fight for their cause

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pressure groups in the uk

—TUC Trade Union Congress : campaign for a fair work deal and social justice home and abroad —Pro Life Alliance : campaign to secure the right to life of all human beings from conception to death —BMA – British Medical Association: represents all doctors and medical staff in government —Fathers For Justice : Protecting families from secret courts

  • Amnesty internationl: human right violations
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types of pressur egroups

—Sectional/ Interest groups: concern the economic interests of their members. Membership is based on the citizen’s interests or what they feel passionate about —Cause / Promotion groups: aim to raise awareness of an issue that will not benefit them economically.

  • insider groups- government help and funded
  • outsider groups- no government help ect
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pressure group tactics

—Lobbying : discussions which attempt to influence the decisions of those in power, but often fail —Strikes:  Refusing to work due to redundancy, payments or other issues which may affect the workplace —Marches: walking or marching by a group of people through a city or town which are in favour of the cause —Working through a Political Party: Some groups will work with political parties and will be notified when new policies are introduced —Publicity through the media: Sometimes when the above are carried out by pressure groups they get significant media coverage because of the disruption to daily life, or the views that they are trying to express —Nimbys: When residents of a particular town, village or city oppose the building of certain structures such as power plants or wind turbines

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postal worker strike

—In late 2009, the Communications Workers Union went on strike meaning that many postal workers went on strike due to disputes over jobs and pay. They claimed that they were sick and tired of the poor management of the Royal Mail —The group led protests in many of Britain's major cities over "panic-driven cuts being made at Royal Mail to pay, jobs and services” —The Royal Mail claimed that it would make customers lose confidence in their services —Under 20,000 workers went on strike over the decided strike periods. —This led to delays in postal services close to Christmas time. Many people suffered under the strikes because their important mail was delayed delivery —The CWU agreed to prevent strike action being taking during the Christmas period —On 8th March 2010 a deal was reached between the Royal Mail and the CWU, who agreed to a 6.9% pay rise over 3 years. The working week was cut and improvements were made to the maternity and paternity. pay

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