immunology

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  • Immunology
    • Cells
      • macrophage
        • phagocytosis
      • dendritic cell
        • antigen uptake
      • neutrophil
        • phagocytosis
      • eosinophil
        • killing of parasites
      • mast cell
        • release of granules containing histamine
      • NK cell
        • releases lytic granules to kill virus infected cells
    • Innate Immunity
      • Antigen independent
      • No time lag
      • non-specific
      • no immunological memory
      • Physical barriers
        • Skin, gut villi, lung cilia, mucus, etc
      • cells involved
        • phagocytes
          • macrophages
          • neutrophils
          • recognise patterns specific to microorganisms
          • oxygen independent
            • phagosome fuses with lysosome
          • oxygen dependent
            • binding of bacteria increases O2 uptake
            • NADPH oxidase forms superoxidase anion
            • can be reduced to OH* (radical)
            • or H2O2
            • oxygen species damage bacteria membrane
          • reactive nitrogen
            • induction of nitric oxide, produces nitrogen species
        • NK cells
          • infected and malignant cells
          • on contact, release, toxic granules
            • punch holes in membrane
          • release cytokines
        • mast cells
          • contain cytoplasmic granules that cause inflammation
          • releases histamines, anticoagulants, cytokines
    • Adaptive Immunity
      • antigen dependent
      • lag period
      • antigen specific
      • memory
      • exposure to invaders, induced
      • Humoral
        • b-cells
        • produce antibodies known as immunoglobulins
      • cell mediated
        • T cells
          • T helper cells
            • T helper 1
              • produce cytokines
              • that activate macrophages
            • T helper 2
              • activate b-cells to produce antibodies
          • cytotoxic T cells
            • recognise antigen
            • lethal hit of perforin to create pores in membrane
            • Untitled

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