Hydrocarbons Mindmap

  • Created by: umar2312
  • Created on: 20-04-17 17:30
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  • Hyrdrocarbons
    • Homologous Series
      • A homologous series is a family of hydrocarbons with similar chemical properties who share the same general formula.
      • There are three main groups in the Homologous Series
        • The Alkanes
          • The Alkenes
            • The Cycloalkanes
              • The alkenes have the general formula CnH2n
              • Even though they have the same general formula as the alkenes, the cycloalkanes are saturated and contain only single bonds.
            • The alkenes have the general formula CnH2n
            • Alkenes all contain a carbon to carbon double bond which makes them more reactive than the alkanes.
          • The general formula of the alkanes is CnH2n+2
          • They are covalent molecular substances and as  such they have strong covalent bonds inside their molecules and weak forces between their molecules. They are saturated hydrocarbons
    • A hydrocarbon is a  compound made of hydrogen and carbon.
    • Combustion is the burning of a substance in oxygen.
      • Incomplete combustion is when there is a limited amount of oxygen the products are Carbon Monoxide, Carbon and Wate, in cars catalytic converters reduce the poisonous and dangerous outputs of incomplete combustion
      • Complete combustion creates Water and Carbon Dioxide.
    • Naming Hydrocarbons
      • Naming Branch Chained Alkanes
        • 1) Find and name the longest chain.
          • 2) Name each of the side groups
            • 3) If the molecule contains more than one side group use the prefixes.
              • 4) Write the side group names in alphabetical order.
                • 5) Number from end nearest to a branch
    • Cracking is a process which converts large unwanted alkanes into short hydrocarbons.
    • Isomers are subtances which have the same molecular formula but their structural formulae are different..
    • A fuel is a substance that releases energy when it is burned (usually in oxygen).
    • Catenation is the linkage of atoms of the same element into longer chains.
    • Saturated hydrocarbons are ones that  contain only hydrogen and carbon atoms bonded to each other, therefore unsaturated hydrocarbons are molecules that contain at least one carbon-to-carbon double bond
      • Orange bromine water can be used to test for unsaturation. When it is added to a sample of the fat or oil:
        • The bromine water stays orange with a saturated fat or oil
        • The bromine water goes colourless with an unsaturated fat or oil
    • Addition Reactions
      • Bromine Br2 can be used to test for unsaturation. An addition reaction happens at the carbon-carbon double bond, producing a dibromo compound. This is colourless, so the observed change is that the bromine is decolourised.
      • Hydrogenation is a special type of addition reaction where hydrogen adds to a c = c
        • The addition of hydrogen to an alkene makes an alkane.
      • Fractional Distillation
        • Fractional Distillation separation of a liquid mixture into fractions differing in boiling point (and hence chemical composition) by means of distillation
        • Crude Oils in order from lowest to highest boiling point.
          • Camping or household gas, FUEL GAS
            • Fuel for cars, PETROL
              • Used in producing chemcials, NAPTHEN
                • Jet Fuel, KEROSENE
                  • Fuel for large vehicles, DIESEL
                    • Heavy fuels for heating and ship fuel
                      • Residue for roads, BITUMEN


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