fuels and hydrocarbons

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  • Fuels and hydrocarbons
    • 3 requirements for fires
      • heat
      • fuel
      • oxygen
    • hydrocarbons
      • compounds that contain the elements carbon and hydrogen only
    • CO2 turns lime water chalky
    • combustion reactions
      • 2 products-water and carbon dioxide
        • all hydrocarbons burn to produce these products
    • fossil fuels
      • formed over millions of years from the decaying remains of once living things
      • will eventually run out/finite
      • coal is made from vegetation and plants
      • oil/gas is made from dead animals
      • polution is a disadvantage of fossil fules
    • crude oil
      • straight from the ground
      • distilation can be used to refine crude oil
        • distilation is the seperation technique of a mixture of liquids with different boiling points
    • as molecular size increases:
      • boiling point and viscosity increases
        • viscosity:ease of flow (thickness)
      • flammability and ease of evaporation decreases
    • air pollution
      • most pollutants come from burning hydrocarbon fuels from crude oil
      • incomplete combustion forms carbon monoxide, a poisonous gas
    • energy changes
      • exothermic-energy is released
      • endothermic-energy is taken in
      • Eh=c x m x change in temp of water
        • c=heat capacity of water=4.18
        • m=mass of water heated in kg
    • alkanes
      • general formula= CnH2n+2
      • end in ane
      • saturated/single bonds
      • CH3=methyl
        • C2H5=ethyl
    • homologous series
      • similar chemical properties
      • fit the same general formula
      • show a gradual change in physical properties
    • isomers
      • same molecular formula but different structural formula
    • alkenes
      • general formula=CnH2n
      • unsaturated/double bond
      • decolourise bromine solution/water
    • cycloalkanes
      • general formula=CnH2n
      • saturated
      • isomers of the corresponding alkne with the same number of carbon atoms

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