British History Welfare Mindmap

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  • How successfully did British governments provide welfare support in the years 1918-79
    • 1918-39
      • Unemployment
        • National Insurance scheme had benefits paid from a fund generated by member's contributions when employed
          • 1911 National Insurance Act.
          • War undermined this due to the 3.5m troops not being eligible due to either no contributions or not working in the industry.
            • Dole money ('out-of-work donation') was handed out to veterans, and generated through tax and borrowing.
        • Unemployment Insurance Act (1920) meant to be self-funding, but then economic times hit hard + 2/3rds of all workers quickly drained funds.
          • '21, govt. forced to make extended payments- dole money disguised as insurance.
          • Govt. felt forced to do this due to Poor Law not being able to cope, and 2.4m workers already taking part in stikes over pay.
          • Attempts made to limit expense= 'seeking work test' implemented in '21 rejected 3m claims by '30.
        • 1929 Local Government Act.
          • Public Assistance Committees (PACs) set up to issue dole payments. Means tested thru intrusive methods.
          • End of '31- 400,000 people were rejected.
        • 1934 Unemployment Act.
          • Part 1 Provided 26 weeks of benefit payments to the 14.5m workers who paid into the scheme.
          • Part 2 Created Unemployment Assistance Board (UAB) to help those with no entitlement to benefits- it assisted 1m people by means-test.
        • Unemployment only really tackles after rearmament in 1936.
      • Pensions
        • 1908 Pensions Act affected this period greatly and was greatly popular with 70+'s
        • Criticisms = means-tested and didn't support widows and children of the deceased.
        • 1925 Widows', Orphans' and Old Age Contributory Pensions Act
          • Provided a pension of 10 shillings a week for those aged 65-70 + people in title of Act.
          • Self-employed workers of both sexes could join the scheme in 1937.
          • Successful due to lack of tinkering.
      • Housing
        • Slums were rampant with crime and disease.
        • 1919 Housing and Town Planning Act aimed to build over 600,000 houses, but only built 213,000 before the recession and Geddes Axe
        • The estimated shortfall in housing in 1923 was 822,000.
        • Housing Acts in 1923, 1924, and 1930.
          • First two used subsidies to encourage construction.
          • Between 1919 and 1940, 4m houses were built in total.
        • '24-'39 = 20 'cottage estates' were created on the outskirts of London.
        • Was bad though, Becontree estate built where there were no jobs. Only saved by the new Ford car factory in '31.
    • 1939-64
      • Community provision of bomb shelters, evacuation, helped poorer.
      • White Paper 'Social Insurance' was the basis of the 1946 National Insurance Act.
      • Beveridge Report ('42) told of  'five giants'
        • Want
          • National Insurance
        • Disease
          • NHS
        • Ignorance
          • Better Education
        • Squalor
          • Rehousing
        • Idleness
          • Maintenance of full employment.
        • The fact the govt. hired Beveridge for this type of job shows aim to make Britain better.
      • Social security implemented through higher taxation. This meant higher pension and unemployment benefits.
        • Family Allowances Act (1945) provided mothers with a non-means tested payment payment of five shillings a week for each child apart from her first- amount lower than Beveridge's recommendation.
        • National Insurance Act ('46) created a compulsory universal contributory system to help pay for pensions.
        • 1959 National Insurance Act introduced a top-up scheme based on earnings, known as the graduated pension.
      • 88% of those entitled to family allowance had applied for it by 1949.
      • Absolute, but not relative poverty, was tackled.
    • 1964-79
      • Cost of unemployment benefits increased from 0.6% of GNP in '39 to 5.6% in '50 and 8.8% in '70.
      • '75 Social Security Act set up the State Earnings-Related Pension Scheme (serps)
      • Both Tory + Lab governments increased spending on the welfare state- Postwar Consensus. Why, did costs increase?
        • Baby booms = more kids
        • Increase in the average life expectancy meant more care for the elderly.
        • Social groups not considered in the initial plan who demanded more. (one-parent families.
        • Higher Living Standards meant poorer demanded higher minimum standard of life.
      • '71 Family Income Support programme provided allowance for a first child.

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