(Hardy/Eliot) Men

  • Created by: NHow02
  • Created on: 19-03-19 15:24
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  • Men
    • Moments of Vision
      • 'whole life foul or fair, glassing it - where?'
        • Alludes to Macbeth's witches, which reveal his true nature (can't escape the truth)
        • Rhetorical question creates a frustrated effect (he can reflect but can't be enlightened)
          • Wishes to prove himself as a man
        • 'us, and our heart'
          • Plural pronouns reflects all of mankind as well as men
    • Prufrock
      • 'Do I dare?'
        • 'disturb the universe?' / 'eat a peach?'
          • Compares simple actions with existential ones
          • Rhetorical questions are not answered (vulnerable effect)
          • Rhapsody
            • 'The street-sputtered / 'the street-lamp muttered'
              • Man's mental breakdown (collapse of rational thought/ approach to life)
              • 'street' creates cold, isolated effect (male plight personified)
              • Wasteland poems: 'Jug Jug' to 'twit twit twit'
              • From 1897 the women's suffrage campaign gained momentum, resulting in votes for women over 30 in 1918
                • Eliot describes his work as 'rhythmical grumbling'
        • Repetition creates hesitant effect
      • 'The skirts that trail along the floor -'
        • 'Skirts' suggests speaker is looking at the floor, downcast
          • Women were taking on more prominent roles in post-war society
        • Hyphon suggests women are unreachable
        • POL: 'mounted on my hands and knees'
          • Modernist image, should show progress but speaker is reluctant
          • Society has dragged men down until all they can do is ***** for passion/ salvation
    • The Hollow Men
      • 'throbbing between two lives'
        • Alludes to Tiresias Being with male & female features + gift of prophecy)
          • Omniscient observer of failed relationships
        • Repulsive word 'throbbing' links to 'carbuncular'
          • Painful swelling beneath the skin (men are ready to burst with loss/desire?)
        • Interim state of the 'Hollow Men' (struggles to connect with his own masculinity)
          • In 1921, Eliot took a break from his job to recover from a mental breakdown
      • 'Not with a bang but a whimper'
        • Onomat-opoeia suggest a metaphorical bomb
          • Survived  WW1, but real death will be of society
          • Sound alludes to postwar PTSD
        • 'whimper' suggests cowardice (society is unable to function)
          • Men are 'trapped inside their own...private cave of feeling' seen with 'unflattering exactness'
        • Paradoxical effect of 'hollow' + 'stuffed' (souls cannot be reformed)
          • Repetition of 'Between' (trapped in an intermittent state/ purgatory)
          • Repetitive use of 'we' pronouns creates an inclusive effect
            • Eliot insists that poetry must be written with impersonal intent (not as himself)
          • Society is not a blank slate (beyond a mental breakdown)
    • To Lizbie Browne
      • 'so swift your life and mine so slow'
        • Sibilance emphasises separation (long vowel sound slows pace of poem)
        • 'coaxed and caught'
          • Sharp 'c' alliteration creates a bitter tone (regrets he did not take action)
            • Suggests he believes Lizbie was stolen (cannot admit his mistake)
          • 'Men speak of me'
            • Separated from his masculinity (too cowardly)
        • Regularity of sestets shows Hardy wants a settled life
    • In Time of 'The Breaking of Nations'
      • 'thin smoke without flame'
        • Smoke screen creates a lost effect (soldiers didn't know what they were fighting for)
          • 'thin' suggests lack of shield OR weakened soldiers (no substance left)
        • Written during the 1st World War. Hardy predicts how war will end
          • War stanza in the middle of the poem (wordly event that we will recover from)
        • 'without flame' suggests soldiers are fighting without hope/light
          • 'will go onward' was a typical WW1 attitude  (using soldiers as canon-fodder)
        • Smoke of no-man's land (clearing, end of the aftermath)
      • 'a maid and her wight'
        • Archaic word represents societal recuperation (past returns)
          • However, 'wight' suggests a temporary affair (loss of position in society)
          • Hynes: 'stoic regret of the irrevocable passage of time'
        • Hardy's couples are often separated (e.g. 'a soldier and a wife')
          • Emma died in 1912 (cycle of war=cycle of grief) so Hardy struggled with love

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