WJEC Geography A2 Food Sustainibility

Massive mind map for food sustainibility 

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  • Created by: Amber
  • Created on: 11-04-13 18:47
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  • Food Sustainibility
    • Factors that promote or hinder
      • Physical
        • Promote
          • Relief: gently sloping or flat is most efficient:L less water run off and soil erosion
          • Soil: fertility depends on air, water and nutrients  increased fertility = increased production
          • Climate:: Incrased rainfall and temperature will promote growth to a degree, hot wet conditions are best
        • Hinder
          • Relief: Steep land increases run off and erosion
          • Soil: Dry soils with a small humus layer, aridisol or frozen soils can't support growth and hinder production
          • Climate: Low temperatures have lower production,  <250mm rainfall reduces productivity
      • Technological
        • Promote
          • New equipment and technological  developments increase  productivity and yield = lower prices
          • Can provide additional employment
          • Food prices are lower from lower production costs
        • Hinder
          • Can cost people unskilled manual labour jobs if machinary can do it instead
      • Political
        • Promote
          • Syngenta and Royal Society of Chemistry set up the pan-Africa chemistry network to improve farming
          • Tax incentives, research and development can encourage farmers
          • Governments built roads, dams and infrastructure, encourages to increase production
          • Government subsidies for growing certain crops make them more profitable to farmers
        • Hinder
          • EU is aiming to replace 5% of transportation fuel with biofuel by 2010
          • In the 1960s and 70s, policites (Malaysia) encouraged cash crops eg. rubber
          • 1980s hi-tech equipment in Singapore destroyed crops due to climate
          • Governments focused on industry and development may forget agriculture
          • Governments can enforce limits and quotas
      • Economic
        • Promote
          • 4 new outlets and 200 new employees hired every day
          • Brazil and Vietnam are the biggest providers of arabia and robusta coffee
          • Bags of coffee bean bring in $800/kg and can be $50 a cup in NYC
          • Large amount of money available for R + D = better equipment= increased productivity
          • High demand means new shops are opened, more jobs are available and it reduces the unemployment rate
        • Hinder
          • 106 thou km2 used for coffee beans, not enough land to sustain demand, demand outweighs production, price  increases
          • Top consumers eg. coffee shops in the US make the highest profit, producers make the least
          • Low yield, low revenue, can't survive
          • 85% artisanal vessels catch only small fraction of the world's fish
          • 15% of the world's vessels are industrial and catch 80% of the world's fish
    • Obesity in the USA
      • 60 mil adults and 9 million children are obese
      • Caused by an imbalance between eating too many calories and not getting enough exercise
      • Being overweight/ obese  increases the risk of heart disease, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipletemia and stroke
      • Obesity is measured by BMI
      • In 1991, there were 4 states with an obesity rate of 14-19% and no states over 20%
        • In 2004, there 7 states with 15-19%, 33 states with 20-24% and 9 states over 25%
      • Health cost is $395 per person anually
      • It costs society $117 bil
      • It is partially due to fast food and packaged drinks being readily available
      • Needs to prevent obesity and engage in physical activity
      • Causes 100-400,000 deaths yearly
      • In 2008, 58 mil were pre diabetic, 236 mil were diabetic and 90-95% were type 2
    • Famine in Kenya
      • Drought stretched back from 2000, 1997, 1992 and 1987
      • 2 years without rain, last rain was 2004
      • Human fatalities were counted in dozers
      • 100s of rotting animal carcasses
      • Children admitted to hospital with malnutrition went from 2 a week to 4 a day
      • 90% of Wajir districts 407,000 population were in a near catastrophic        situation
      • 3.5-4 million people faced starvation
      • 11 million people were affected across East Africa
      • Half of all cows and sheep in Wajir district died
        • Animals left were too weak to produce milk and too emaciated to be slaughtered for meat
      • They appealed for $150 mil in aid
        • Received £12.7 mil from Britain
    • Genetically Modified Crops
      • For
        • Crops may have pest resistance built in, reducing pesticide usage
        • They may have tolerance to herbicides
        • There can be higher yields for the same cost
        • They can be adapted to different conditions e.g.  desert or tundra
        • May be able to make plants disease resistant
        • Crops can be made more nutritious
      • Against
        • Cross      contamination with plants that shouldn't be treated e.g. organicc
        • Suggested link to cancer
        • Unknown effects on ecosystem
        • More expensive than regular crops and requires development
        • Success is marked with antibiotic, consumpution may result in bacterial resistance
    • Management
      • Hydroponics
        • Thanet Earth, Kent
          • Tomato plants over 15m tall
          • 7 commercial greenhouses will be 'mono-crop'
            • Grow one product, but possibly numerous varieties
        • Costs less
          • Crops don't contaminate soil
            • Maintenance  required is high
              • Any failure in the system leads to plant death
            • Can be used in places with bad soil e.g. desert
              • Overall, it is sustainable
          • Bugs/pests reduced
      • Aeroponics
        • Lim Chu Kang, Singapore
          • Process of growing plants without soil
            • Water transmits nutrients
              • Sometimes considered a form of hydroponics
        • Savings in water and land
          • Growth of  network of fine lateral roots
            • Cutting edge technology to cultivate
            • Might go against some cultures or traditions
              • Not available to all developing countries
                • Overall, it is sustainable
      • The Blue Revolution
        • Zomba West,  Malawi
          • Chambo and Mlamba fish being bred
            • Manure from farms used as fertilizer in ponds, silt in ponds used as crop fertilizer, crops used to feed animals (intergrated agri/aqua culture)
            • Fish provide locals with protein, increase life expectancy HIV
              • 1,200 affected helped, fish intake 150%
        • Increased from 26,000 in 1970 to 700,000 in 1990
          • Retail value over £20 bil
          • 85% of farmed shrimp production in Asia
            • Large expansion led to degredation and loss of natural resources
              • 100,000  Mangrove trees lost in Thailand
                • Salinisation of waterways ruins fishery and crop production
                  • Average farm lasts 2-5 days before serious pollution
                  • Overall, it is sustainable
      • The second green revolution
        • India
          • All had a shorter growing season
            • Planting of high yield types increased from 12%-67% between 1970-90
          • First country to benefit from the use of high-yielding variety seed program 1996
          • All responsive to fertilisers
          • HPV introduced new drought resistant cereals
        • Research, development and technology transfer initiatives increased agricultural production around the world
          • Credited with saving 1 bil people from starvation
          • Change in production to sustain growing population
          • Targets all aspects of modern agriculture: irrigation,fertiliser, crop protection and seed technologies
            • New varieties produce 2-4 times the previous yield
              • Diet in rural areas can become more varied
                • Shorter season allows growing of extra crops
              • Rural debt as farmers borrow money for chemicals and GM seeds
                • Increased rural - urban migration
                • Some countries highly depend of transnationals for supplies
                  • Overall, it is not sustainable
    • Case Studies
      • Relationship between supermarkets and farmers
        • Supermarket  Code of Practice was introduced in 2002
          • 4 supermarkets involved: ASDA, Safeway, Sainsbury and Tesco
        • More than half (58%)  of farmers asked didn't think it made a different
          • 52% thought they were being paid the same or less
          • 37% of fruit and veg growers said they received the same or less than the cost of production
      • Food production and technology
        • Agricultural technology is the primary factor in increasing food productivity
          • Leads to lowering food prices, cheaper food releases income that can be spent on other goods
        • New technology can provide additional rural employment
        • Food prices are lower, but balance of benefits between consumer and producer depends on the nature of the economy
      • Soil Degredation in Zimbabwe
        • Climate (hot dry season followed by wet) makes it vulnerable to fluvial erosion
        • Decline of fertility
        • Results in siltation and sediment build up
        • 2 types of land ownership: communal and private
          • Private owners have more incentive to look after land
        • Production: 0.4 tonnes per hectare per year Degredation: 30 tphpy
      • Rice Production in Laos
        • Increased from 1.4 mT in 1986 to 2.5mT in 2004
          • Policy changes have contributed to growth
            • Rice yiels increatsed at an anual rate of 2.6%, while land expansion was only 1.8%
              • Mostly due to the use of modern varieties and GM crops
                • Food on national level has improved, households are still not secure
                  • Population growth is increasing demand, expected 8.8 mil people by 2020
  • Low technology, labour intensive cheap fisheries
    • Hinder
      • 106 thou km2 used for coffee beans, not enough land to sustain demand, demand outweighs production, price  increases
      • Top consumers eg. coffee shops in the US make the highest profit, producers make the least
      • Low yield, low revenue, can't survive
      • 85% artisanal vessels catch only small fraction of the world's fish
      • 15% of the world's vessels are industrial and catch 80% of the world's fish
  • All responsive to fertilisers

Comments

Mr A Gibson

Very detailed Mind Map including generic information and specific examples - suitable for revising for any exam board. Although a lot of information is contained here, as a .pdf it is user friendly.

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