Flooding Case Studies

Carlisle, River Eden, 8th January 2005 and Bangladesh and India, July and August 2007, Brahmaputra and Ganges rivers.

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  • Flooding Case Studies.
    • Carlisle, England, 8th January 2005, River Eden.
      • Causes: heavy rainfall- 200mm in 36 hours, this saturated soil and increased runoff. The urban areas impermeable surfaces increased runoff. This caused discharge of river to reach 1520 cumecs average= 52 cumecs.
      • Primary effects: 3 deaths, 3,000 people homeless, 4 schools severely flooded, 350 businesses shut down, 70,000 addresses lost power, some roads and bridges damaged and rivers polluted with rubbish and sewage.
      • Secondary effects: children lost out on education- one school was closed for months, stress-related illness increased afterwards, around 3,000 jobs were at risk in businesses affected by floods.
      • Immediate responses: people evacuated, reception centres opened around Carlisle to provide food and drinks for evacuees, temporary accommodation set up for people made homeless.
      • Long term responses: community groups set up to provide emotional support and practical help to those affected by the flood. Flood defence scheme set up to improve flood defences e.g. build up banks along River Eden.
    • South Asia (Bangladesh and India), July and August 2007, Rivers Brahmaputra and Ganges.
      • Causes: Heavy rainfall- in one region 900mm fell in July. This saturated soil increasing runoff. Melting snow from glaciers in Himalayas increased discharge of Brahmaputra river. Peak discharge of both rivers happened at same time, which increased discharge downstream.
      • Primary effects: over 2,000 deaths, 25 million homeless, 44 schools destroyed, many factories closed, lots of livestock killed, 112,000 houses destroyed in India, 10,000 km of roads destroyed and rivers polluted with rubbish and sewage.
      • Secondary effects: children lost out on education- 4,000 schools affected, 100,000 people caught water-borne diseases, flooded fields reduced basmati rice yields- prices rose by 10%, many farmers and factory workers became unemployed.
      • Immediate responses: many didn't evacuate, blocked transport links slowed any attempted evacuations, other governments and charities gave food, water and medical aid. Technical equipment e.g. rescue boats sent to help stranded people.
      • Long term responses: international charities funded rebuilding of homes, agriculture and fishing industries. Some homes were rebuilt on stilts so they're less likely to be damaged by more floods.

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