European bronze age

HideShow resource information
View mindmap
  • European bronze age
    • Religion and ritual
      • Whole corpses interred under barrows
        • Shift from long barrows to round barrows
          • Each barrow has a single crouched inhumation
            • Can be in a graveyard of barrows
              • Usually clustered together and away from inhabited areas.
            • Body laid on chalk surface then covered with soil
              • Usually in flexed (foetal) posiition
                • Bush barrow
                • West Cotton
              • Some evidence of partial excarnation before burial
            • Shift from community to social stratification?
              • Important individual being buried?
                • Time period typified by masses of barrows with rich grave goods
                  • Could indicate settled life
                  • Link between site and ancestors-tribal authority?
                  • Often crop up around older sites
                    • Thornborough henges have barrows nearby
                  • Stone ceremonial 'battleaxes'
                    • Imported halberds, pins
                      • Amber
                        • faience (fine tin glazed pottery)
                          • Rillaton gold cup
                            • Rillaton barrow
                              • Round barrow located in Cornwall
                                • Eastern part of Bodmin moor
                              • Centrally placed inhumation
                                • Remains placed in stone cist roughly 2m by 1m
                                • Variety of grave goods including gold cup, a bronze dagger, beads, pottery, glass and other items
                              • 25m wide barrow
                            • Biconical (two cones placed together apex to apex)
                              • 90mm high
                              • Handle attached with rivets
                              • Resembles late Neolithic ceramic designs
                                • similar Ringlemere cup found in 2007-Corded design also.
                                • Suggested that cup shows Aegean influence due to similar finds at Mycenae
                                  • Cultural and trading links to Eastern mediterranean
                            • c.1700BC
                              • May have been buried long after it was made
                                • Votive offering
                            • Round bottomed and unable to stand up
                • Grave goods differ depeding oon gender
                  • Males
                    • Arrowheads, daggers, wristguards, pyrites and strike-a lights
                      • Representative of society? (be careful not to jump to conclusions due to preconceived ideas)
                  • Females
                    • Flint knives, bronze awls/pins and shale beads
          • Still some chambered tombs but few and far between.
          • Time period typified by masses of barrows with rich grave goods
            • Could indicate settled life
            • Link between site and ancestors-tribal authority?
            • Often crop up around older sites
              • Thornborough henges have barrows nearby
            • Stone ceremonial 'battleaxes'
              • Imported halberds, pins
                • Amber
                  • faience (fine tin glazed pottery)
                    • Rillaton gold cup
                      • Rillaton barrow
                        • Round barrow located in Cornwall
                          • Eastern part of Bodmin moor
                        • Centrally placed inhumation
                          • Remains placed in stone cist roughly 2m by 1m
                          • Variety of grave goods including gold cup, a bronze dagger, beads, pottery, glass and other items
                        • 25m wide barrow
                      • Biconical (two cones placed together apex to apex)
                        • 90mm high
                        • Handle attached with rivets
                        • Resembles late Neolithic ceramic designs
                          • similar Ringlemere cup found in 2007-Corded design also.
                          • Suggested that cup shows Aegean influence due to similar finds at Mycenae
                            • Cultural and trading links to Eastern mediterranean
                      • c.1700BC
                        • May have been buried long after it was made
                          • Votive offering
                      • Round bottomed and unable to stand up
      • In far North and West passage graves continued unaffected by beaker people
        • Still some chambered tombs but few and far between.
        • Clava Cairns
          • Inverness
          • Normally only contained one or two remains though so still shifting idea from community
            • Also no eveidence of visitations at later dates
              • Unlike West Kennet in Neolithic
                • Now blocked off in Bronze age
                  • Shifting beliefs?
          • Collection of 3 groups of chambered tombs sub-divided into two classes
            • One consiting of corbelled passage grave similar to Newgrange (Neolithic) in Ireland
              • Orientation to SW towards midwinter solstice
              • Covered by cairn of stones
            • Second type consists of annular ring cairn enclosing a seemingly open roofed area with no formal means of access
              • Height of standing stones vary
                • Sometimes tallest fringe entrances if present and shortest directly opposite it.
                  • One consiting of corbelled passage grave similar to Newgrange (Neolithic) in Ireland
                    • Orientation to SW towards midwinter solstice
                    • Covered by cairn of stones
            • Both types have a stone circle surrounding whole tomb and stone kerb surrounds cairn
      • Arrival of metal
        • Impacts
          • More trade
            • Areas without metal came under threat
              • What they had to offer no longer as valuable
                • Therefore had to make surplus in order to obatin metal
                  • Needed to get metal to keep up with times
                    • Otherwise they could have become obsolete and been taken over by other tribes.
          • More cross-cultural contact in order to obtain metals and share knowledge
            • More trade
              • Areas without metal came under threat
                • What they had to offer no longer as valuable
                  • Therefore had to make surplus in order to obatin metal
                    • Needed to get metal to keep up with times
                      • Otherwise they could have become obsolete and been taken over by other tribes.
          • More variety of ritual to be expected
            • Suddenly new objects available
            • If person can work metals and take an ore and make jewellery out of it for example could have been seen as a shamanisitc figure
              • One of the theories surounding Oetiz the ice man (2nd theory proposed)
              • Might have been expected to perform other magical feats
                • One of the theories surounding Oetiz the ice man (2nd theory proposed)
              • Become travelling metal workers?
                • Might have been expected to perform other magical feats
                  • More cross-cultural contact in order to obtain metals and share knowledge
          • Can cultures and people be identified through burial practices?
            • Idea of beaker people
              • Disputed amongst archaeologists
              • Invasion of this bell beaker burial culture into Europe
              • Beaker culture
                • Based on type of pot
                  • Speculated by Gordon Chile whether they were beer vessels.
                    • Associated with alcholic usage and possible cannabis usage
                      • Hemp could have created corded impressions on some of the pots
                  • Bell beaker
                    • S England
                  • Long necked
                  • Short necked
                    • N.E England and Scotland
                • Begins c.2500BC.
                  • Dominant by c.2250BC
                    • Dying out by c.2000BC
                • Inhumated with beakers-either in barrows or in ground
                  • Grave goods also prominant
            • Diffusionism VS Indigenous production VS accumulation
              • Hard to identify what really happened
              • Recallibrated C14 dates using dendrochronology widened time range
                • Therefore idea of cultural change rather than invasion now more plausible
                  • Invasion of this bell beaker burial culture into Europe
        • Raundway, Wiltshire
        • Amesbury Archer

      Comments

      No comments have yet been made

      Similar Archaeology resources:

      See all Archaeology resources »See all Unit 1-Religion and ritual of prehistoric Europe resources »