Late Bronze Age 1400-500BC and Early Iron Age in Europe

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  • Created by: Canar
  • Created on: 29-04-16 09:52
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  • Late Bronze Age 1400-500BC and Early Iron Age in Europe.
    • Few monuments
      • Sacrifice increases
    • Water burial
      • Also chariot burials
        • Wetwang
          • Arras culture burial in Yorkshire
            • 3 chariot burials, all aligned North-South, with head facing north.
              • Burial 1-Triangular ditched enclosure 6.5-7m wide. remains of young male adult on right side with knees drawn up. Pig bones placed on body. Iron tyres and hoops from chariot wheels survived, as well as spokes. Axles were 1.81m in length.
              • Burial 2-square ditched enclosure 9.6m wide. Young adult female facing right with legs bent and arms extended. Pig bones deposited on top. Soil makrs show complete dismantled chariot beneath the female. This includes the extended pole for the yoke, iron tyres, bronze nave hoops, four spokes and terret rings which have survived better.  Behing the head and shoulders of the female were 2 horse bits, a bronze case with chain attached, a pin and a bronze mirror
              • Burial 3-Young adult on dismantled chariot, facing right with thighs drawn up at 90 degrees to the torso. Similar metal parts have survived as in the other burials.
                • An iron sword in its scabbard with bronze decoration lay diagonally across his body. There's also two rings with central studs of coral-possibly to attach sword to a belt.
    • ritual more obvious in everyday life
    • Religion and ritual
      • Little evidence of burial c.1000-400BC
      • Halstatt culture
        • 700-500BC
        • Ornate grave goods
        • Wagon burials
          • Wetwang
            • Arras culture burial in Yorkshire
              • 3 chariot burials, all aligned North-South, with head facing north.
                • Burial 1-Triangular ditched enclosure 6.5-7m wide. remains of young male adult on right side with knees drawn up. Pig bones placed on body. Iron tyres and hoops from chariot wheels survived, as well as spokes. Axles were 1.81m in length.
                • Burial 2-square ditched enclosure 9.6m wide. Young adult female facing right with legs bent and arms extended. Pig bones deposited on top. Soil makrs show complete dismantled chariot beneath the female. This includes the extended pole for the yoke, iron tyres, bronze nave hoops, four spokes and terret rings which have survived better.  Behing the head and shoulders of the female were 2 horse bits, a bronze case with chain attached, a pin and a bronze mirror
                • Burial 3-Young adult on dismantled chariot, facing right with thighs drawn up at 90 degrees to the torso. Similar metal parts have survived as in the other burials.
                  • An iron sword in its scabbard with bronze decoration lay diagonally across his body. There's also two rings with central studs of coral-possibly to attach sword to a belt.
          • Rich in bronze objects related to feasting and are usually accompanied by wagons or horse accoutrements
            • Showing lineage of elite?
            • Also show evidence of Greek design and influence
              • Massalia Greek port made in c.600BC at mouth of Rhone
              • Flagons found at Graechwil similar to ones found in Rhodes
              • Heuneberg hillfort built on Greek design-Greek architect?
                • Fortified citadel measuring 300 by 150m.
                  • Positioned on spur 40m above Danube, Germany-strategic-rolling lands surround it.
                    • Several surrounding features-  Aussensiedlung (exterior settlement), Südsiedlung (south settlement) and Vorwerke (lower fortifications) and monumental gates.
                    • Probably don't need to know all the details but vague understanding could prove useful-could research further if interested
                  • 700BC
                  • Operated as hub of local production and long distance trade-.
                    • Full bronze workshop, high proportion of Greek vases (fragments make up to a dozen-for elite?) and decorated pottery.
                • Most importantly for this unit is the presence of several associated cemeteries
                  • Giessübel-located 500m northwest of main complex. 4 main mounds of roughly 50 m diameter and 7m  height.
                    • Grave 1-Rectangular wooden chamber (3.5m by 5.5m) with male aged around 50 at death. Also remains of two women
                      • Finds included weapons, gold and bronze attachments for clothing, amber plagues probably for couches -had been robbed.
                      • 20 further burials later placed either in or on mound.
                      • Larger number of bodies being interred-remnants of community idea or ancestor connection?
                        • Or simply reusing burial mound because its easier than making  new one?
                    • Grave 4-Robbed. Only had remains of one individual and metal remnants of chariot.
                  • Hohmichele-cluster of burial mounds (necropolis) 3.5km west of citadel. Only 14 mounds have survived erosion and ploughing-located in forest.
                    • Hohmichele mound-diameter of 85m and height of 13m+,. 13 burials inside,  some with grave goods.
                      • Larger number of bodies being interred-remnants of community idea or ancestor connection?
                        • Or simply reusing burial mound because its easier than making  new one?
                      • Grave 1-centre of mound, oak built main chamber. Contained man and woman with many grave goods-horse trappings, 600 glass beads from necklace, pieces of amber, fine gold threads, floor had been covered in cowskins. Original mound of 5m high and 40m diameter covered  (chamber is 5.7 by 3.5m)
                        • Support idea of reuse-mound added to for other burials?
                        • And that was after robbing, not long after burial-lack of respect?
                      • Grave 6-12m SE of main chamber and 2.2m higher was unplundered chamber. (3 by 2.4 by 1m). Also contained man and woman. 4 wheeled chariot, horse trappings for two horses, bronze eating and drinking utensils, quiver of 51 iron arrowheads, iron knife, amber and glass beads (2,300 green glass beads)
                        • Woman on chariot, man on floor. Evidence of embroidered fabrics and bronze artifacts by head and feet.
                      • Grave 9-pyre-grave.  1m above grave 6. Woman who had died aged 18-30 years. Grave goods-2 bronze armlets and 20+ pottery vessels with incised or stamped decorations and red paint.
                      • 6 other graves of inhumations. 22 fireplaces found in mound-pyres?
              • 650/600-500BC
        • Halstatt C
          • Elite burials found across Europe
            • Rich in bronze objects related to feasting and are usually accompanied by wagons or horse accoutrements
              • Showing lineage of elite?
              • Also show evidence of Greek design and influence
                • Massalia Greek port made in c.600BC at mouth of Rhone
                • Flagons found at Graechwil similar to ones found in Rhodes
                • Heuneberg hillfort built on Greek design-Greek architect?
                  • Fortified citadel measuring 300 by 150m.
                    • Positioned on spur 40m above Danube, Germany-strategic-rolling lands surround it.
                      • Several surrounding features-  Aussensiedlung (exterior settlement), Südsiedlung (south settlement) and Vorwerke (lower fortifications) and monumental gates.
                      • Probably don't need to know all the details but vague understanding could prove useful-could research further if interested
                    • 700BC
                    • Operated as hub of local production and long distance trade-.
                      • Full bronze workshop, high proportion of Greek vases (fragments make up to a dozen-for elite?) and decorated pottery.
                  • Most importantly for this unit is the presence of several associated cemeteries
                    • Giessübel-located 500m northwest of main complex. 4 main mounds of roughly 50 m diameter and 7m  height.
                      • Grave 1-Rectangular wooden chamber (3.5m by 5.5m) with male aged around 50 at death. Also remains of two women
                        • Finds included weapons, gold and bronze attachments for clothing, amber plagues probably for couches -had been robbed.
                        • 20 further burials later placed either in or on mound.
                      • Grave 4-Robbed. Only had remains of one individual and metal remnants of chariot.
                    • Hohmichele-cluster of burial mounds (necropolis) 3.5km west of citadel. Only 14 mounds have survived erosion and ploughing-located in forest.
                      • Hohmichele mound-diameter of 85m and height of 13m+,. 13 burials inside,  some with grave goods.
                        • Grave 1-centre of mound, oak built main chamber. Contained man and woman with many grave goods-horse trappings, 600 glass beads from necklace, pieces of amber, fine gold threads, floor had been covered in cowskins. Original mound of 5m high and 40m diameter covered  (chamber is 5.7 by 3.5m)
                          • Support idea of reuse-mound added to for other burials?
                          • And that was after robbing, not long after burial-lack of respect?
                        • Grave 6-12m SE of main chamber and 2.2m higher was unplundered chamber. (3 by 2.4 by 1m). Also contained man and woman. 4 wheeled chariot, horse trappings for two horses, bronze eating and drinking utensils, quiver of 51 iron arrowheads, iron knife, amber and glass beads (2,300 green glass beads)
                          • Woman on chariot, man on floor. Evidence of embroidered fabrics and bronze artifacts by head and feet.
                        • Grave 9-pyre-grave.  1m above grave 6. Woman who had died aged 18-30 years. Grave goods-2 bronze armlets and 20+ pottery vessels with incised or stamped decorations and red paint.
                        • 6 other graves of inhumations. 22 fireplaces found in mound-pyres?
                • 650/600-500BC
          • Hallstatt D
            • Around 530BC concentration of power in fewer larger centres
              • Burial rites become more developed and exclusive
                • Princely rather than tribal world emerging
            • Vix
              • Female burial with huge krater for wine mixing-1.63m tall
                • Attic cups for drinking
                  • Greek influence
                    • Trade
                    • Greece hit by traumas just as 'princes' emerging in more typical 'cities'.
                      • Nice new market
                      • Amphorae show up at many sites around this time
                        • Some goods may have had Etruscan anture
                          • By 450BC Etruscans have moved into Po valley and were in direct contact with Gaulish tribes.
                • Large amounts of jewellery but no weaponry with her
                  • Aged 30-35 when died
                    • Placed in 4m by 4m wooden chamber under a tumulus of earth and stone (42m diameter, 5m height)
                      • Body laid in freestanding chariot with wheels beside it (only metal parts have survived)
                      • Grave goods are as follows: 480g 24 carat gold torc, a bronze torc, 6 slate bracelets, 6 fibulae, and an amber bracelet.
                        • Also had imported goods-Krater, silver phiale, Etruscan bronze oinochoe, and the drinking cups.
                          • Krater-Made of 7 pieces-assembled in situ. weighs 60Kg. Capacity os 1,100 litres. Made of single sheet of bronze, walls are only 1-1.3mm thick. Crushed by tumulus but reconstructed
                            • Foot is single piece weighing 20.2kg, decorated with plant motiffs.
                            • 3 handles supported by rampant lioness. 46kg each. Each elaborately decorated with gorgon.
                            • Neck depicts 8 chariots drawn by 4 horses each, with Greek hoplites following on foot.
                            • Lid was hammered bronze, 13.8kg. Perforated-strainer
                              • Protrusion at center supports 19cm moulded bronze statuette of woman with one outstretched arm-wears peplos. Appears to be older than rest of krater.
              • 500BC
                • Burgundy
                  • Located on top of mont Lassois
                    • Excavations of setttlement on top revealed ditches and walls up to 8m thick and enclosed were hearths, post houses, pit dwellings and storage units built on stilts.
                      • North-south axis
                      • Also evidence of two stone figures-one male (warrior) and one female found in small enclosure
                    • Palace of the Lady of Vix
                      • Located at center of site.
                      • Large complex (2-3 buildings). Main building 35 by 21m, and 12m tall.
                        • Resembles Megaron complex of early Greek architecture.
                        • Suggested usage as either domestic or for feasting
                    • Over 40,000 pot sherds found
                      • Largely local. Chequered patterns, some animals.
                      • Imported black Attic ware and amphorae.
                      • Jewellery-fibulae, earrings, beads, slate bracelets and rings.
                    • Glass ornaments found
                    • Some small bronze figures
                    • Little evidence of weaponry-largely axes and projectiles.
                    • Other burial mounds
                      • Mound II contained cremated remians in urn and somge grave goods. 850 BC
                      • La Butte-another woman on chariot with two iron axes and gold bracelet
                      • La Garenne contained cart, Etruscan bowl with 4 griffin or lioness remains. Unknown if there were human remains. Now destroyed.
              • Important fortified settlement and burial mounds
            • Heuneberg III-attic drinking cups also
            • Hochdorf from this time
          • 750-600BC

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