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  • Created by: Emma
  • Created on: 27-05-10 09:43

Newgrange

  • 3200 BC (late neolithic)
  • neolithic passage grave was constructed over looking River Boyne
  • Mortuary complex of tombs

2 monuments

  • knowth
  • dowth

Rituals

  • the entrance has a light box above it. this is possibly used for a ritual celebrating rebirth
  • winter at dawn 2 days etiher side
  • a shaft of light would flow through the box
  • womb shaped chamber
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Newgrange

Iconography

  • rock art (the most important in europe)
  • tri-spirals
  • zig zags
  • herring bone
  • circles
  • axe shapes

Beaker period

  • cluster of round houses
  • oval pits and timber post settings
  • possibly of henge (similar in size to newgrange)

groove wear and animal bones

  • suggest that faesting took place
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Flagfen

  • situated in a coastal swamp
  • since 7th century has been drained for use in farming
  • rows of thousands of pieces of wood
  • up to 80,000 post originally made up a 1 km long causeway linked to an island.
  • site in use for at least 400 years from 1350 years BC (late bronze age) possibly into iron age.

cranhog

  • dispelled due to scale and deposits high value and unused items
  • swords
  • spears
  • jewelry
  • millstones
  • bones of dogs- valuable hunting dogs
  • found at the seaward side of the platform
  • structured deposition common in northan europe
  • deposits of weapons prestige items and human remains associated with watery places
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Flagfen

  • the recording of positions of the finds enabled distribution patterns to be established

preservation

  • had to rapidly preserve the finds
  • would have started to disintergrate son after removal from the environment

Evidence

  • timbers from sea henge
  • tree rings are narrow
  • the climate deterioration shows wetter summers
  • trades in prestige items between northan Europe and Medittranean break down
  • bronze sword head indicates a change in warfare.

increased depostition in water

  • fine materials
  • animal and human bones
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Flagfen continued

iron age causeway

  • sacrifice and population
  • may mark a more extreme form of religion
  • help of underground water gold
  • to prevent rising sea levels - swamping farms
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Wetland slack

iron age cemetery

  • large number of square rectangulat burial enclosures
  • some covered chariot burials

early neolithic long barrow

  • inhumation placed behind a facade.
  • barrel shaped cremation came after
  • furnace that was constructed enabled bodies to be burnt in standing position
  • small pit halfway along the burial contained cremated bon
  • 2nd furnace belonged to ploughed out barrow 200m from the first
  • RADIO CARBON DATING (C-14) placed phase at end of 4th millennium BC

Bronze age barrows (grave goods)

  • beakers
  • food vessels
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Wetland slack continued

urn burials

  • in pits without covering
  • the largest contained 11 graves
  • beaker burial predate the food vessels

Bronze age

  • 2 wide pits with graves at the bottom
  • no grave goods
  • no dateable findings- adverse ground conditions

1st burial

  • dismantled chariot
  • with owner (30 years old)
    whip
  • harness fittings
  • 12 spoke wheels
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Wetland slack

2nd burial

  • woman with iron age mirror
  • horse fitting of bronze
  • small round container

3rd burial

  • sword
  • shield
  • no spear heads
  • 7 spears
  • scabbard
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