5 Named sites for exam

the 5 named sites that could come up in the exam and that you should know backwards, if youi dont look at these simple revsion cards

Lasceux - Palaeolithic - 20,000 B.C

- lots of abstract pictures, animals and 1 humans (rare for a cave painting) human has what looks like a duck on a stick next to him, this could be proof to back up that he was a ritual specialist

-neuropsychology - use iconography to get to world of ancestors, then whilst in their shayministic trance they will commune with their ancestors or the gods and paint what they see

- another therory is they go into their trance by taking their drugs and paint what they are going to hunt so that they can have a succesful hunt

- famous painting - horses with big bodies and small heads with lots fo dots around them, dots are what are seen in a hallusinjenic trance once drugs have been taken, maybe what they have seen in their trance

- human - only human in cave, very rare, seems to have erection could this be important, has duck on stick next to him , this could be a shaymanistic item, which means he could be important like a ritual specialist

-hall of bulls - lots of bulls and horses painted on walls with dots round them

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Newgrange - Late Neolithic Tomb/Burial Mound - 29

- a huge barrow/tomb, its has a cruciform chamber with a facade at the front and inside is many excarnated bodies.

- on the winter solstice sunrise the sun will shine right on to the excarnated bones through a light box which is above the narrow entrance. this may be to symbolise the journey to the world of the ancestors or a tribute to a sun diety

- outside Newgrange is lots of curb stones all with iconography, some have little on them but some of them are covered, among the iconogrpahy is swirls or spirals and lozenge shapes, the swirls may be portals or gateways to another world and the lozenges are said to be water maybe symbolising a water god

- Newgrange is part of a ritual landscape with the river boyne, and knowth, the boyne is a liminal feature and may serve the same purpose as the River Avon does to Stonehenge

- lots of focus of attention (including massive white facade at the front), must have taken lots of effort to construct- similar to Maize Howe

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Stonehenge - Late Neolithic/ Early Bronze Age - 26

Phase 1 - Exterior ditch and bank + aubery holes and some sort of wooden structure and maybe 2 entrances

Phase 2 - Station Stones introduced + start of Avenue and the bluestones are introduced

Phase 3 - Bluestones get taken away, sarcen aray put up with the 5 big trialthons witht he solar alignment to the winter solstice

Phase 3B - Bluestones re-appear in interior circle + stoneholes at back of monument, but no 100% that they had stones in them, Entarsis - Stones carved to make an optical illusion

Phase 3C - Y and Z holes appear - dont know what these are or used for

Ritual landscape - Durrington Walls, River Avon, Woodhenge, The Avenue, lots and lots of Round Barrows + The Stonehenge Cursus

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Stonehenge Continued


1. Gateway to the Ancestors - On the Winter Solstice a short gateway opens in which the souls of the dead can pass to the world of the ancestors, in this short time span the Rirual Specialist can commune with the Ancestors

2. Temple to the Sun - On the Winter and Summer Solstice the community gathers to commerate the sun and give it votive offerings maybe to ask for something or so that the gods will not be nasty to them for the forthcoming year

3. Ritual Healing Centre - The Sarcen stones are not important and that the Bluestones are the most important, they have been broguht form the natural springs of the priscelli mounatins for this reason, people would coem from far and wide to get healed - E.G, Amesbury Archer may have dcome from switzerland to get healed

4. Place of the dead - Durrington walls is where the community would feast to commerate the dead whilst the dead body lay in Woodhenge, then it would be floated down the River Avon to the Avenue and then on to Stonehenge

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Flag Fen - Early Bronze Age - 1200 B.C

Important things - Liminality, Votive Offerings, Mimicing the journey of the soul

Features - long causeway with an artifical island in the middle, on either sides of the water is land

Liminality - Vertically - Northey Island + other island on other side

- Horizontally - one side of causeway and other side of it

Votive Offerings - Lots of Artefacts one one side of causeway - mostly Bronze

Theories - Water God - Artefacts being dumped in the water to propritate to the Gods

- Land of Living/Dead - Northey Island is land of dead - Lots of Barrows

- Journey of Soul - mimicing the journey of soul by crossing from one side of the causeway to the other side of the causeway.

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Wet Wang Slack - Iron Age Burial Site - 300 B.C

- Lots of inhumations around 100, including 3 chariot burials - 1 woman and 2 men

1st Chariot Burial Male - flexed inhumation with a chariot inside the grave with it. Found with a sword and typical Grave goods you would associate with a Warrior - discovered in 1984, also in the grave below the sword were two bronze discs, to the left of the sword were 2 iron half cylinders which were meant to represent spine covers of a wooden shield, around the body were several iron spearheads which shafts had been broken.

2nd Chariot Burial Female - flexed inhumation with a chariot inside the grave. A Mirror was found in the grave with her, and some horse bits/Fittings with semi precious jewels on them were also found. Also an artefact nicknamed the Bean Tin was found - its purpose is unknown and archaeologists still have no clue what it is used for. The head of a broken Iron and Gold pin decorated with Coral was also found

3rd Chariot Burial Male - flexed inhumation with a chariot inside the grave. A sword was found like the first grave, also an iron scabbard, and also a decorated Bronze plate. Cast bronze rings were found decorated with coral, an iron item which archaeologists belive is some kind of reinforcement for a wooden shield boss

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have you got any revision notes for the roman europe sites? such as uley and bath etc.

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