emancipation of Jews in Europe

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  • Emancipation of Jews:
    • across Europe 1790-1918
      • economic incentive, trade networks across mediterranean/Atlantic and idea that Christians + Jews can live among eachother as individuals not opposing groups
      • needed a political rapture
    • during French Revolution:
      • 1790= 5,000 Jews granted full rights citizenship
      • 1789= national assembly published declaration of the rights of men and the citizen
      • north western Jews at time of emancipation had already assimulated into their surrounding Christian society
        • these were merchents and traders, talked dressed and lived like their christian neighbours almost
      • 1791= emancipation of other important Jewish community in France eastern of Alsace and Lorraine
        • these integrated into France but didnt speak french, lived in seperate communities, but granted citiensip
      • emancipation of 89-91 didnt give equal rights BUT enabled continuity to live in communtiies, follow Jewish laws, own courts, dress/speak differently
      • had pre-history made of ecnomic empowerment of Jews thanks to cantilism +enlightnement thinkers of men's rights
        • 1790-91 turning point in Jewish History, and marked Europe's entry into modernity.
          • meant rethinking and reshaping the point in which Europeans had lived for past 1800 years
          • Jews still discriminated against in Europe, not emancipated in other countries until months later (Italy 1861, Austria 1867)
      • state stopped discriminatingpeople based on religion.
        • relationship not by groups or religion but by duties of country
      • Jews for centuries considered outside of Christian society
    • Prussia:
      • Napoleonic era 1799-1815= conquer all of europe and exported the ideals and laws of French Revolution to them
        • including emancipation of Jews
      • Defeated in 1806 (By Napoleon)
        • 1812 Emancipation Edict
      • granted full citizenship but restrcited (couldn't sit in gov)
      • edict concerned only Jews who lived in old historic prussia. Eastern territories
      • 50 years afetr 1912= Jews rights in Prussia confirmed, restricted again and then extended once more. Depending on poltiical circumstances
      • when unified with Germany, taboo as extended emancipation to German Jews
    • Russian Empire
      • 1917= Bolsh revolution emancipated Jews
      • result of dismember of Poland, Russia had 1M Jews in extended borders end of 18thC
      • 1795= Jews to move outside new terroitories known as Pale of Settlement. for next 120 years JEws suffered from policies of Catherine the great
        • Nicholas II and Alexander II tried to integrate Jews into Russian society without effecting chrsitian subjects
      • vast majority of Jews in Pale Settlment continued to leave 19thC to participate in east European Jewish enlightenment
      • not until 1917 that Jews get full citizenship and emancipation

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