emancipation of jews ideas europe history

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  • emancipation of jews ideas
    • seperation and segregation:
      • ghettos
      • originally from Israel
      • Christians saw all Jews as the same, and jews live at mercy of their christian masters
      • 'Jew Suss' execution in public square in Germany 1738
      • Suss figure important in changes of conditions of Jews begin in 16th/17thC europe which led to emancipation in 18thC
    • mercantilism:
      • economic theory developed in 16th/17thC
      • for country to become wealthy had to export more goods than it imported
        • mercantilism meant leaders in Britain and central Europe keen for people who'd bring economic resources
      • jews= perfect description. had capital to invest + network to build trade relationships especially due to expulsion they suffered as families scattered across Mediterranean and Europe
      • 16th/17th= new figure emerged. Court Jew
        • capital to invest, network across Europe
          • acted as economic advisors through process of providing, some highest positions of ogv, Suss was a court Jew
      • France+German regions after discovery of America 1492, new trade routes became centre of economic expansion + welcomed Jews
        • Jews readmitted to England middle of 17thC
          • despite mercantilism some countires like Portugal and Papal states discriminated Jews still
    • enlightenment:
      • reason over superstition
      • men= individuals rather than groups whose rights had to be respected by states/church
      • advocated all humans born equal
      • challenged some foundations that Christian Europe based on for 89 years
        • first discussed in France, German Kingdom of Prussia that idea of universal brotherhood had largest impact on Jews
      • Moses Mendelssohn= advocated Jewish emancipation in Berlin, became influential
        • 1743 arrived Berlin. Befriended most prominent christian figure of enlightenment
          • close friends with Jewish playwright who challenged Jewish prejudices.. 'Nathan the Wise'
          • Dohm 'on the civil imporvement of the Jews 1781, 'jews cna be useful members of the civil society
      • argued Jews predicament across Europe wasn't God's punishment like theology said but years of discrimination (revolutionary at time)
      • 1783= religious beliefs were publich affair defining relationship between state and individual
        • Mendelssohn's relationship with Lessing signaled significant changes been happening  with
      • Mendelssohn and Pastor dispute over him convreing to christinaty in 1770s, by 18thC radical thinking of Jews place in society

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