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  • controlling fertility
    • hormones can be used to reduce fertility
      • 1.estrogen can be used to prevent the release of an egg (method of contraception)
        • 2. if estrogen is taken everyday to keep its level permanently high it inhibits the production of FSH and after a while egg development and production stop
          • 3. progesterone also reduces fertility eg by stimulating the production of thick cervical mucas which prevents any sperm getting through and reaching an egg.
            • 4. the pill is an oral contraceptive - the first version was made in the 1950's and contained high levels of estrogen and progesterone
      • pros and cons of the pill
        • prosthe pill is over 99% effective at preventing pregnancyit reduces the risk of getting some types of cancer
        • cons - it isn't 100% effective - there's a very slight chance of getting pregnantit can cause side effects like headaches, nausea, irregular mentrual bleeding and fluid retention, it doesn't prevent against STD's
    • hormones can be used to increase fertility
      • some women have levels of FSH thatare too low to cause their eggs to mature - this means no eggs are released and the woman can't get pregnant
        • the hormone FSH and LH can be injected by these women to stimulate egg release in their ovaries
    • IVF (InVitro Fertilisation) can help couples have children. it involves collecting eggs from the womans ovaries and fertilising them in a lab using the mans sperm - these are then grown into embryos


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