Conservatism : Libertarian, New Right, Liberal New Right, Conservative New Right

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  • Conservatism : Libertarian, New Right, Liberal New Right, Conservative New Right
    • Conservative New Right (Neo - Cons)
      • A modern version of social conservatism that emphasises the need to return to traditional or family values or revitalise the nation
      • Traditional conservative and notably pre-Disraelian social theory especially defence of order, authority and discipline of order. This is called the conservative new Right or Neo - conservatism
      • Emerged in USA in the 1970s as a backlash against the ideas of the 1960’s. It was defined by a fear of social fragmentation or breakdown which was seen as a spread of permissiveness
      • They accept the rolling back of the state's economic responsibility
      • Neo conservatives agree with Neo liberals about limited economic state intervention
      • Traditional values
        • Moral pluralism is a threat. Lack of guidance / support may lead to people choosing the wrong moral path
        • Unaware of ethical norms / moral standards therefore they are not the same or consistent. This could lead to a fragmented society
        • Family hierarchy and patriarchyFamily values, Margret Thatcher ‘Victorian values’
      • Neoconservatism has its roots in traditional or organic conservatism. Neo conservatives look to strengthen community by restoring authority and imposing social discipline
      • Authority
        • Strong law and order - strengthen leadership to strengthen the community
        • Strong social discipline, believe prison works, tougher sentences
        • Natural hierarchy- children should listen to, respect and obey their parents
      • Permissiveness - the willingness to allow people to make their own moral choices; permissiveness suggests there are no authoritative values
      • Foreign policy
        • Trying to spread western liberal democracy to other parts of the world
      • Nationalism
        • Patriotism; binds nation together, sense of belonging and history. Provides national unity and sense of togetherness
    • New Right
      • The New Right thus attempts to fuse economic libertarianism with state and social authoritarianism
      • The New Right is a marriage between two apparently contrasting ideological traditions - Neoliberalism and Neoconservatism
      • The new right is a broad term and has been used to describe ideas that range the demand for tax cuts, to calls for greater censorship of television and films and even campaigns against immigration or in favour of repatriation
      • Just as conservatives had come to accept political democracy during the nineteenth century, after 1945 they came to accept a more qualified form of social democracy
    • Libertarian Conservatism
      • Economic liberalism - A belief in the market as a self regulating mechanism that tends naturally to deliver general prosperity and opportunities for all
      • Sometimes seen as a late twentieth century development, the new right having in some way ‘hijacked’ conservatives in the interests of classical liberalism
      • These ideas are libertarian in the idea they advocate the greatest possible economic liberty and the least government regulation of social life
      • Libertarian conservatives have not simply converted to liberalism, but believe that liberal economics is compatible with a more traditional, conservative social philosophy, based on values such as authority and duty
      • The free market is efficient and fair, but is also, Burke believe, natural and necessary. It is ‘natural’ in that it reflects a desire for wealth
      • Liberal conservatives believe in economic liberalism but do not however believe in the principles of individual liberty to other aspects of social life - A strong state is required to maintain public order and ensure that authority is respected
      • Can establish ‘market order’ sustained by impersonal ‘natural laws’ rather than the guiding hand of political authority
    • Liberal New Right (Neo - Libs)
      • Product of the end of the long boom of the 1945 period, which shifted economic thinking away from Keynesian and re awakened free market thinking
      • The liberal aspects of the new Right are most defiantly drawn from classical rather than modern liberalism and particularly from neoliberalism.
      • It amounts to a restatement of the case for the minimal state. This has been summed up as ‘private, good; public, bad’. The liberal new right is anti statist
      • The stage is regarded as a realm of coercion and unfreedom: collectivism restricts the individual initiative and saps self respect.
      • Government however benignly disposed, invariably has a damaging effect on human affairs. Instead faith is placed on the individual and the market.
      • The individual should be encouraged to be self reliant and to make rational choices in their own interests. The market is respected as a mechanism through which the site of individual choices will lead to progress and general benefit. Such as the liberal new Right has attempted to establish the dominance of liberal new Right has attempted to establish the dominance of libertarian ideas over paternalistic ones with conservative ideology.
      • Underpinning this view is egotistical individualism, the idea that people owe nothing to society and are, in turn, owed nothing by society, and expressed in Thatcher's assertion that ‘there is no such thing as society’.
      • Anti - Statism
        • The state has been summed up as ‘private good, public, bad’.
        • The state is regarded as a realm of coercion and unfreedom: collectivism restricts individual initiative and saps self respect.
        • government however benignly disposed, invariably has a damaging effect on human affairs. Instead faith is placed on the individual and the market
      • Laissez Faire economics
        • (Adam Smith) - Economic theory - too complicated for humans to understand. Market self regulation is best rather than the state.
        • Incentive - Profit motive - Efficient Increase the chances of general prosperity for all
      • Self reliant, individualist
        • The individual should be encouraged to be self reliant and to make rational choices in their own interests. The market is respected as a mechanism through which the site of individual choices will lead to progress and general benefit.

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