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CONSERVATISM

Origins and development

grew in reaction to growing pace of political, social and economic change
symbolized by French Revolution
conservative thought adapts to the existing traditions and national
cultures
Edmund Burke epitomised this new set of values when he critiqued the
revolution as the classic example of what happens…

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reflects an almost Darwinian belief that institutions and customs
that have survived have done so because they have worked and are
of good value
endorsed by a process of natural selection and demonstrated
their fitness to survive
Conservatives in the UK argue institution of monarchy should be preserved
because it…

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Conservatives believe that human beings are dependent and security-
seeking creatures
implies they cannot exist outside society but desperately need to
belong, to have `roots' in society
the individual cannot be separated from society but is part if the
social groups that nurture him/her
friends
family
peer group
groups provide…

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Hierarchy and authority

Conservatives have traditionally believed that society is naturally
hierarchal
characterized by fixed or established social gradations
social equality is rejected as undesirable and unachievable; power,
status and property are always unequally distributed
agree with liberals in accepting natural inequality among individuals (some
people are born with talents…

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Conservatives believe that caution in the management of money is a virtue
and have sought to encourage private savings and investment in property
also promotes a range of important social values
more likely to respect others property
have a `stake' in society therefore an interest in maintaining law
and order…

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differs from authority as authority suggest legitimacy and approval `from
below'
authoritarian thinkers base their view on a belief in the wisdom of
established leaders or that social order can only be maintained by
unquestioning obedience


One nation conservatism

Disraeli associated with paternalistic tradition. Wrote two novels which
emphasized principle…

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`natural' as it reflects desire for wealth that is part of human
nature so laws of market are `natural laws'
accepted that working conditions as dictated by free market
can be degrading and bad but also argued that they would
be much worse if the natural course was disturbed
capitalist…

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- Liberal new right attempted to establish dominance of libertarian ideas
over paternalistic ones within ideology
- Dominant theme is commitment to free market
o in 1970s governments found it difficult to deliver economic stability and
sustained growth hence the growth and renewed credibility of free
market
o doubts as…

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- New right also don't like welfare as they are committed to individual rights.
Egotistical individualism says that people owe nothing to society and are
owed nothing by society
o Thatcher expressed this when she said `there is no such thing as
society'

Conservative New Right

- Emerged as backlash…

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