The seeds of conflict 1917-44

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  • seeds of conflict 1917-44
    • the cold war emerged out of the ashes of the second world war.
      • defeat of Nazi Germany left a power vacuum in Europe in 1945.
    • Bolshevik - political party that seized power in Russia in 1917.
      • in 1925 they changed the name to All-union communist party.
        • establishment of the worlds first socialist state.
      • comintern- set up in 1919 to facilitate contacts between communist groups.
    • Us president Woodrow Wilson 1918 14 points
      • promoted the principles of self determination, open markets and collective security.
        • in 1919 Versailles treaty rejected. US isolate themselves,
    • Causes of Tension.
      • capitalism vs communism
      • Bolshevik gov pulling out of ww1
      • refusal of soviet regime to honour debts to west from previous governments
      • Bolsheviks decision to kill Tsar of Russia - King George V cousin
      • allied countries of the west set out to plot against the Bolsheviks, working with their enemies- they did not forget this.
      • Comintern
      • mutual mistrust. USSR suspicious of appeasement
      • pushed Stalin(1924) into Nazi-Soviet pact (aug 1939)
    • Grand alliance strains - UK, US, USSR
      • Teheran (nov 1943)- issues concerning poland
      • the issue of poland
      • the timing of the opening of the second front
    • STALIN (1879-1953)
      • shrewd, manipulative, coarse, practically minded, an effective administrator and ruthless.
      • joined the Bolshevik party in 1903. general secretary of the party in 1922. Undisputed leader of the soviet union from 1928.
      • harsh but effective industrialisation, collectivisation of agriculture, systematic use of terror, heavy censorship and propaganda, his policies turned the USSR into a world power.
      • highly suspicious of the west and anti-Bolshevik. safe guard the country against foreign attack.
    • Franklin D. Roosevelt (1882-1945)
      • energetic, enthusiastic, optimistic. Struck down by polio in 1921 confined to a wheelchair.
      • president from 1933-1945
      • introduced a set of new measures known as the new deal, address the problems caused by the great depression.
      • brought the US into the ww2 after the attack on pearl harbour. prepared to negotiate directly with Stalin during ww2.
    • WINSTON CHURCHILL (1874-1965)
      • phenomenal energy, inspiring, willing to get directly involved, humane
      • conservative, prime minister during ww2 1940-45 and then again in 1951-55
      • strong anti communist, but prepared to work with soviet union again Ngermany. Met with Stalin several times.
        • suspicious of Stalins motives in 1946 'iron curtain speech' alliance of UK and US to prevent soviet expansionism.
  • defeat of Nazi Germany left a power vacuum in Europe in 1945.


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