USA: Civil rights achievements up to 1975

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  • Civil Rights Achievement up to 1975
    • Progress in US civil rights 1969-74
      • increased training for black people setting up businesses in black areas
      • favourable tax terms to white-owned businesses that expanded into black areas
      • more black officials working in the White House
      • Nixon wanted black voters to vote for him, but balanced this against those white voters that he knew still opposed civil rights
        • he portrayed improved civil rights to white voters as a means to control the black rioters, rather than arguing it was their entitlement
      • he patronised black Americans by presenting the promotion of black home ownership as a way to stop them destroying property
    • What progress did the civil rights movement achieve by 1975?
      • significant progress in integration (e.g. schools, transport and restaurants) was achieved
      • the campaigns to achieve economic equality (e.g. MLK's Poor People's Campaign and the campaigns of the Black Panthers) did not see a reduction in economic equality
        • by the 1970s, the gap between the richest and poorest in the USA still depends on race
          • black Americans still tended to have worse employment chances and were paid less
    • How did the federal government lead progress in civil rights, 1965-75?
      • in the 1950s, the federal government hoped that enforced changes through new laws would cause a change in attitude and integration would spread quickly
        • by 1970, integration was not consistent and sometimes did not actually improve the situation for black Americans
          • in some ways black schools had been better than integrated schools in terms of outcomes for black students
      • the federal government continued to introduce new civil rights legalisation
        • the 1970 Voting Rights Act banned literacy tests in all states
        • the 1975 revision to the Voting Rights Act explicitly included other racial minorities
      • by 1970, 700 black elected officials were in office in the Southern states, a rise from only 25 in 1964
      • in 1973, Maynard Jackson was elected Atlanta's first black mayor

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