Cold War Fact Test

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List the three international conferences (and the years in which they took place) attended by the grand alliance in the later part of the Second World War
Tehran (1943), Yalta (1945), Potsdam (1945)
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Although they agreed to 'Spheres of influence' at Tehran, what did they disagree about?
Germany- punish or rebuild
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Name 3 decisions made at Yalta
Russian troops would help USA defeat Japan after Hitler was defeated, Roosevelt and Churchill agreed to establish a communist gov in Poland, Work for democracy in Europe and established UN- organisation commited to maintaining peace
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What were the signs of tension at Yalta
Disagreement over what democracy meant. The success was due to the good relationship between Stalin and Roosevelt. However, 2 months later R died and new president Harry S Truman was less willing to compromise with Stalin
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Name three things they agreed on at Potsdam
They agreed to ban the Nazi party and prosecute surviving Nazis as war criminals. Agreed to reduce the size of Germany by 1/4 and agreed to divide Germany into 4 zones- allocated to France, UK, USA and USSR
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Name three things there were disagreements over at Potsdam
Reparations, Atomic bomb and Poland
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In addition to growing tensions at the conferences, there was a growing fear of war- intensified by a 'war of words' which increased suspicion. Name the two 'secret telegrams'
Long Telegram (USA) and Novikov Telegram (USSR)
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What was produced by Truman in 1947 that is often seen as the unofficial decleration of the Cold War?
The Truman Doctrine
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This decleration of 1947 set out a new policy towards communism. List 3 key features of it
World had a choice between tyranny and democratic freedom, America had a responsibility to fight for liberty (World's Policeman), America would send troops and resources to governements that felt threatened by communism- communism should be contained
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The Marshall Plan of 1947 set out how much money to rebuild shattered European economies as Marshall Aid?
$13 billion
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How many countries welcomed the offer?
16 including UK and France
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Name 3 countries that were run as satellite states by the USSR?
Hungary, Poland and Czechoslovakia
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Stalin responded to the Truman Doctrine in 1947 with comminform. List 3 key features of this
Brought communist parties across Europe under the control of USSR (control eastern Europe). Rejected the Marshall Plan and refused Marshall Aid. Ensured the loyalty of eastern European govs (investigated and removed disloyal ones).
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Comecon was the economic answer to Marshall Aid. What year was it introduced?
1949
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List three key features of Comecon
Boycotted Marshall Aid. Ecouraged economic development of eastern countries. Prevented trade with the USA/West
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List the political and economic impacts of comecon
Political- minimised influence of the West. Economic- ensured that the benefits of economic growth in the east remained in the soviet 'sphere of influence'
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The world was now divided- this had been made very clear by the Truman Doctrine and Cominform. What do we call this development?
Two Camps
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The western sectors of Germany (Trizonia) upset Stalin in 1948. What two things did they do to upset him so much?
1. Set up an assembly to create a German constitution 2. Introduced a new currency
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As a response, Stalin set up a blockade around West Berlin. When did this start?
June 1948
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What was he hoping to achieve with the blockade?
Stop the new government controlling west Germany
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What was he hoping the blockade would prove?
That a divided Germany could not work
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What was Truman's response?
An airlift
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At it's height how many tonnes of supplies were being sent into West Berlin?
170,000 tonnes a month
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When did Stalin end the blockade?
May 1949
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In September West Germany became a separate country- also known as what?
FDR (Federal Republic of Germany)
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In October East Germany became a separate country- also known as what?
GDR (German Democratic Republic)
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When was NATO formed?
April 1949
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What was the aim of NATO?
Defend the West against communism
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In May 1955, the USSR responded with what?
The Warsaw Pact
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The arms race was a key feature of the Cold War. When did the USSR develop it's own atomic bomb?
1949
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When did both sides have hydrogen bombs?
1953
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Who was Hungary's dictator from 1949-56?
Rakosi
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What was his nickname?
The bald butcher
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His oppressive regime imprisoned how many people?
387,000
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Following Stalin's death in 1953 what started happening in the USSR and eastern countries?
De-Stalinisation
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What happened in Hungary after Khrushchev's secret speech? (3 points)
Students rioted, huge demonstrations in Budapest, a more liberal leader was appointed
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Who was the next leader of Hungary (more liberal)
Imre Nagy
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Khrushchev was unhappy with the more liberal approach in Hungary- how many troops did he send into Hungary?
200,000
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How many were killed and how many fled?
20,000 killed and 200,000 fled
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What happened to Nagy?
Arrested and hanged in June 1958
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What did the USA do (2 points?)
No military support, $20 million food and aid
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Who became the next Hungarian leader?
Kadar
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Name 2 points from his new 15 point programme:
Remain in Warsaw Pact, Re-establish communist control
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The East German government was unpopular and many people started leaving to go to the West- how many people moved between 1949 and 1961?
2.7 million
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By August 1961 how many people a day were leaving for the West?
3000
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Why did Berlin become the center of this problem?
It was easy to cross the city into the western side
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Khrushchev was worried- what did he do in 1958 (2 points)
Declared whole of Berlin belonged to East Germany, gave the USA 6 months to get troops out
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List the 4 summits attended by USA and USSR to resolve the issue of Berlin (4 points)
Geneva (May 1959), Camp David (Sept 1959), Paris (May 1960), Vienna (June 1961)
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The USA would not give in to Khrushchev's demands- instead it seemed war was near. What things did Kennedy do in 1961 which alluded to this? (2 points)
Activated 150,000 reservists and increased defense expenditures
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Khrushchev did not want to go to war so his answer was to build a wall around West Berlin. When was the wall first erected?
12th August 1961
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It took months to build. When it was complete what was it made up of? (3 points)
A heavily guarded wall, Watch towers and a Death *****
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What did Kennedy say about the wall?
'A wall is a hell of a lot better than a war'
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How many people were killed attempting to corss the wall?
170
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How many people are thought to have escaped successfully?
5000
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List 3 impacts of the wall (3 points)
Stopped East Germans escaping to the West, allowed Khrushchev to avoid war but still appear strong, the wall became a powerful symbol of the divison of Europe
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What famous words did Kennedy give in his speech when he visited Berlin in 1963?
Ich bin ein Berliner
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What American planes could be used to drop nuclear weapons on USSR?
B52 Bombers
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Whats did USSR launch in 1957 which worried the USA?
Sputnik 1
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How far away from the USA was Cuba?
93 miles
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When was the Cuban Revolution?
1959
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Who became the new leader of Cuba?
Fidel Castro
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Castro took over American property in Cuba- the USA responded by banning the import of what?
Cuban sugar
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Who did the USA look to for help?
The USSR
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The USA backed mission to overthrow Cuba in April 1961 was known as what?
The Bay of Pigs
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The plan failed- the Cuban people supported Castro. How many days did it take to defeat the US backed forces?
2 days
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The Cuban Missile Crisis is also referred to as what, because of the time it lasted?
The 13 days (16th October-28th October)
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How many ships carrying a 'secret cargo' did Khrushchev send to Cuba?
114
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American Spy planes spotted missile sites and fed back to Kennedy- he responds with what?
A Blockade
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On what day does he announce this to the public?
22nd October 1963
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In the end the 2 sides came to a deal. List three parts of this deal
USSR to remove missiles from Cuba, USA to remove missiles from Turkey, USA will never invade Cuba
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Which part is kept secret?
Turkey
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On what date was the deal agreed?
28th October 1963
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Both leaders had advisers- some wanted aggressive tactics, some diplomatic. What were these 2 sides called?
Hawkes and Doves
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List three immediate consequences of the crisis
Khrushchev loses some authority, Hotline is set up, Limited Test Ban Treaty
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List three long term consequences of the crisis
USSR advanced their nuclear weapons to catch up with USA, Doctrine of Mutually Assured Destruction (MAD), France decides to leave NATO
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List four reasons why the Czech people were unhappy in the 1960s
Run by secret police, All political opposition crushed, Economy struggling, Declining standard of living
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Who replaced Novotny as the new Communist Party leader?
Dubcek
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What were the new leaders aims? (3 points)
Socialism with a human face, reform economy, more cultural freedom
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Dubcek introduced a series of reforms known as the Prague Spring. List 4 of these reforms
Relaxed press censorship, Legalised political groups, allowed criticism of the government, Market socialism
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Why did this cause a dilemma for Brezhnev?
Dubcek was his friend- but this could lead to the breakup of the Eastern bloc
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When did Brezhnev invade?
August 1968
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What did Brezhnev then create in order to justify his invasion?
Brezhnev Doctrine
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What did this document state?
USSR had a right to invade any Eastern European country that threatened the security of the Estern bloc
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How did the Czechoslovakian people respond to the invasion?
Non-violent civil disobedience
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What happened to Dubcek as a result of the invasion? (3 points)
Arrested, taken to Moscow, forced to sign the Moscow Protocol
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How did the USA respond?
Condemned it but did nothing
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How did some Estern European Communists respond?
Condemned it and distanced themselves from the USSR
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Name 2 Eastern European countries which did this?
Yugoslavia and Romania
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Which 2 countries spported it?
East Germany and Poland
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How did Western Communists respond?
Condemned it- formally declared themselves independant of the Soviet Communists Party
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During what decades did Russia and America follow the policy of Détente?
1960s and 70s
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List the 2 treaties of the 1960s which limited the possibility of further conflict
1967 Outer Space Treaty, 1968 Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty
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What does SALT stand for?
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty
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When was SALT signed?
1972
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List 3 limits SALT placed on nuclear capability
1. No further production of short range missiles 2. Submarines carrying nuclear missiles would only be introduced exsiting stocks of short range missiles became out of date 3. Both sides limited to 2 ABMs (anti-ballistic missiles)
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Why were for SALT 2 difficult? (2 points)
West Germany were worried that a reduction of arms would leave them undefended, Right wing Americans thought Détente had gone too far
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When was SALT 2 eventually signed?
June 1979
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When was the Apollo-Soyuz mission?
1975
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How did this help relations?
Superpower cooperation in space for the first time
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When was the Helsinki Agreement?
1975
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What were the three main issues associated with Helsinki?
Security, Cooperation and Human Rights
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When was the Kabul Revolution?
April 1978
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Who was the new communist president of Afghanistan?
Mohammed Taraki
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Who did the new President accept as Prime Minister when froced by civil war?
Hafizullah Amin
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When was the President assassinated and by who?
October 1979 by Amin Supporters
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When did the Soviets invade under Brezhnevs orders?
December 1979
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What were the main reasons for the Soviet invasion? (4 points)
Soviet secret police reported Amin was a spy for the USA, Brezhnev was concerned Afghanistan would become a non-communist Islamic state, Brezhnev thought USA would tolerate it, USSR wanted Babrak Karmal in charge
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How long did the invasion last?
10 years
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How many people died during the invasion (total and Russian soldiers)
1.5 million in total, 15,000 Russian soldiers
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What did the new American President issue after the invasion?
The Carter Doctrine
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What did this statement say?
USSR would not be allowed to gain territory in the oil rich middle east
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What steps did Jimmy Carter do to try to remove Soviet troops from Afghanistan? (3 points)
1. USA, China and Israel provided weapons for the Mujahideen- an islamic organisation which was fighting Soviet presence 2. Imposed economic sanctions stopping virtually all trade with the USSR 3. He ended diplomatic relations with the USSR
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Why did SALT 2 never become law?
In response to the Soveit invasion of Afghanistan, the US Senate refused to ratify the treaty
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What percentage did Carter increase the US defence spending by?
5%
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How many countries boycotted the Moscow 1980 Olympic games?
Around 60, including China, Malawi and West Germany
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What were the alternative games called and where were they held?
The Olympic Boycott Games, held in Philadelphia
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How many countries boycottedd the 1984 LA Olympic games?
The USSR and 14 communist countries
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What phrase is used to describe the period between 1979-85, marking a new low in superpower relations?
The 'Second Cold War'
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What were the new US Presidents, Ronald Reagan, views on Détente?
He belived that Détente had made the USA weak whilst allowing the USSR to grow strong
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When was Reagan's 'Evil Empire' speech?
March 1983
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What was the main message of the speech to the US public?
The Cold War was a moral war and the USA had a moral duty to invest in new nuclear weapons in order to defend liberty from the 'evil' Soviet Union
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Why were French and British commentators worried about Reagan?
He stated he could imagine 'a limited nuclear war in Europe'
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What did reagans proposed 'nuclear umbrella' mean (SDI)?
By launching an army of satellites equipped with lasers, which would intercept Soviet missiles in space before they could do the USA any damage
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What did SDI break the terms of?
The Outer Space Treaty of 1967
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Give three reasons why the USSR could no longer comete in the arms race following SDI
1. America had won the race to the moon in '69 and by 1980 had developed the space shuttle. 2. The Soviet economy was not producing enough wealth to fund military spending or space programmes. 3. USSR was behind with computer tech needed for SDI
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Who was the last leader of the USSR from 1985 until its collapse in 1991?
Mikhail Gorbachev
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What was his first comment on Reagan?
'He is extremey primitive. He looks like a caveman and is mentally retarded'
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When did the Chernobyl nuclear plant explode?
April 1986
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What did the Chernobyl crisis signify?
It became an international symbol of the crisis in Soviet communism
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What was Russia dominated by in the 1980s?
Shortages
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Give the two terms and the definitions describing the programme of reform that Gorbachev introduced
1. Perestroika (restructuring)- economic reforms designed to make the Soviet economy more efficient. 2. Gasnost (openness)- censorship of the press was to be relaxed
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What did Gorbachev assume that the reforms would do?
Strengthen the power of the Soviet Communist Party
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What were Reagan and Gorbachev's aims for the Geneva summit in November 1985?
Reagan- Persuade Gorbachev that he sincerely desired peace between the superpowers. Gorbachev- Hoped to convince Reagans plans for SDI
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Why was the Geneva meeting significant?
The Two leaders were able to talk more face to face and develope a personal relationship. However, no formal agreements on arms control were reached
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What happened at the Reykjavik meeting of October 1986?
Reagan proposed scrapping all balistic nuclear missiles. Gorbachev was unwilling to agree to these proposals because Reagan refused to drop the SDI project
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What does the INF treaty stand for?
Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces treaty
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When was INF signed?
December 1987
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What did the treaty do and why was it significant in regards to international relations?
It eliminated all nuclear missiles with a range of 500-5500 kilometres. It was significant as it was the first treaty that had actually reduced the number of nuclear weapons the superpowers possessed
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How did Gorbachevs reforms start the breakup of the Eastern bloc?
Gorbachev hoped to strengthen communism by reform. However, once reform started in Eastern Europe, he was unable to contain it. Eastern governments were weakened
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When was it announced that East Germans would be allowed to cross the border with West Berlin?
9th November 1990
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When was the Warsaw Pact formally dissolved?
July 1991
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Other cards in this set

Card 2

Front

Although they agreed to 'Spheres of influence' at Tehran, what did they disagree about?

Back

Germany- punish or rebuild

Card 3

Front

Name 3 decisions made at Yalta

Back

Preview of the front of card 3

Card 4

Front

What were the signs of tension at Yalta

Back

Preview of the front of card 4

Card 5

Front

Name three things they agreed on at Potsdam

Back

Preview of the front of card 5
View more cards

Comments

Cruicksh10

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A good revision aid for learning key details of the Cold War. Very clear and easy to use.

Hannah Kerai

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Really good for revision. It's all about recalling.

Zebbeccannezza

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It doesn't let me click it

aisha12378612

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It is okay but some of the dates are wrong

EllaBella888

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Sorry if any of the dates are wrong, they are straight out of the textbook so unless I have made any mistakes copying them out they should all be right, which ones are wrong may I ask?

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