Changing Cities-Birmingham-A changing UK city

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  • Changing Cities - Birmingham - A changing UK city
    • Processes that change a city
      • Urbanisation-influenced by manufacturing, e.g. jewellery. small housing built for workers coming in from countryside, e.g. Small Heath
      • Suburbanisation-1920s rising population meant building new housing on the outskirts of the city. New estates, mainly semi-detached houses
      • Counter-urbanisation- five new comprehensive development areas built in inner city. People forced out of urban areas to places like Redditch.
      • Re-urbanisation- more people want to live in centre again, close to work/amenities. modernisation of flats and building of new apartments near canal.
    • National migration
      • People moving out to retirement destinations in the south, such as Bournemouth
      • People moving in because increased investment in Birmingham's CBD has created more employment opportunities
    • International migration
      • People moving in currently who have fled conflict in countries such as Syria
      • People moving in in the past in response to employee shortages, encouraged by the UK government to fill key job posts.
    • Impacts of migration
      • Younger population: with migrants settling in Birmingham, the percentage of people aged 20-35 is higher than the UK average - 66% of the population is under 45.
      • Multiculturalism: 42% of residents are from ethnic groups other than white; 16% do not have English as a main language.
      • Ethnic communities: in the 1970s many migrants settled in Sparkbrook and Sparkhill (cheaper housing). Communities have developed with their own shops, places of worship.
      • Housing: in 2015, it was estimated that the city's housing demands were higher than expected, rising by an extra 5000.
      • Services: having more people in the city is putting increased pressure on key services, such as GP surgeries.

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