Changing Urban Environments Revision Guide Q2

This is a revision guide based on OUP Press textbook and case studies



Dharavi slums, Mumbai

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Changing Urban Environments
Question 2:
Paper 2
Urbanisation has happened at different rates and times in richer and poorer
Different parts of urban areas have different functions and land use
Many issues in richer cities, housing rundown CBD's
Ethnic segregation and solutions
Rapid urbanisation
Development of squatter settlements
The informal economy
Improving squatter settlements
Self help and site and service schemes
Environmental impacts of rapid urbanisation
Sustainable urban living
Urbanisation is the process where an increasing proportion of the population lives in
towns and cities (and there is a reduction in living in rural areas.)
· Rural - urban migrationis a process in which people move from the countryside
to towns or cities.
Push and Pull Factors
Reasons for migration out of rural areas are called push factors.
· Reasons for migrating to cities are called pull factors.
Push Factors · Pull Factors
· Limited transport, · Employment,
· lack of food and water, · better quality of life,
· poor housing, no health care, · more use of facilities eg. schools and
· lack of sanitation, hospitals,
· poor quality of life, · better access to food and water,
· lack of infrastructure, flooding, · better housing,
· drought, · better infrastructure,
· high crime rates, · better education,
· war, · lower crime rates,
· Poor education. · political security,
· lower risk of natural disaster.
Fastest in poor countries
Young people migrate to urban areas for work
They have more children there
Better health care there
Key Points
Over half of the world's population now live in cities
90% of the population in richer countries live in towns and cities
There are now 16 mega cities in the world
Mega cities have a population of over 10 million people

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The Burgess Model
· Designed in the
1920's by Ed Burgess in
· Breaks cities down
into 5 areas using
concentric rings.
· Each ring/area has a
different function/job.
· It describes the
different areas of a city.
Inside Cities
CBD's: Central Business district. This is the core of the city containing shops, offices, entertainment
places etc. Sites are expensive because of the shortage of space.…read more

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Green field Site Brownfield site
Never been built on before Redeveloped site
Building ruins the environment More sustainable
Cheaper to build on More expensive to build on
Advantages of Greenfield sites Advantages of Brownfield sites
New sites don't need clearing so can be Sites in cities are not left derelict
cheaper to prepare and/or empty
No restrictions of existing road network Utilities such as water and electricity
are already provided
Pleasant countryside environment may
appeal to potential home owners Roads already exist
Some shops and…read more

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Revitalising CBDS
Some CBDS are becoming run down due to other out-of-town shopping centres and business parks,
which have cheaper rent and are easier to drive to.…read more

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Birmingham City Council's transport strategy:
Increased number of buses has led to an increase in passenger numbers, e.g. on route 69
there has been a 27% increase
11 extra key rail routes for commuters, e.g. the Jewellery line in operation since 1995
Metro (Light Railway) links Birmingham and Wolverhampton (20.4km in 35 mins) It allows
people to quickly access the CBD every 10 minutes. Built in 1999 it cost £145 million.…read more

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Improve communications, involve leaders of different ethnic communities when making
decisions. This leads to inclusiveness and will help in dealing with cultural sensitivities.
· Offer suitable services, for example in some countries it is unacceptable to be seen by a
different gender doctor, make sure that the appropriate services are available. In Birmingham
health workers are based in community centers, mosques and schools so that people can reach
them easily.
Housing and the Inner Cities
Many inner city areas are being regenerated.…read more

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This is called the Informal · Crime problem, limited policing.
Economy. Workers pay no tax, but have zero
job security, pensions or health care. · Children often don't go to school, limiting
education.…read more

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Scheme is led by the City council/ local authority.
Trying to improve the quality of life in the Dharavi slum in Mumbai.
Quality of life and housing has plummeted as the slums have multiplied.
Land is worth in excess of $10billion to developers.
Plan involves demolishing the slums and giving land to developers cheaply. In exchange the
developers are required to build new and better homes for the slum dwellers.
1.1 million low costs homes are expected to be built.…read more

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Waste discharges from factories are now checked to ensure that the river is cleaner.
More public toilets have been built to reduce the amount of raw sewage being dumped into
the river.
Air Solutions
A new metro system in 2011 aims to reduce congestion and encourage more people to use
public transport.
By 2021 the metro will have 9 lines, mainly underground.
The city has banned diesel fuel in all 58,000 of its taxis.…read more

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Meetings in local halls where plans can be seen and discussed = opportunity to give views +
feeling of inclusion not exclusion
Providing an efficient public transport system
· Volume of cars as private transport = barrier to sustainability of a city
· Congestion charging = unattractive to drivers ==> use alternative transport
· Public Transport must be efficient, reliable and comfortable
· Underground and rail links in London - improvements are a key focus
· Tube trains, lines and stations all being upgraded
·…read more


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