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Changing Urban Environments
Question 2:
Paper 2

Urbanisation has happened at different rates and times in richer and poorer
countries
Different parts of urban areas have different functions and land use
Many issues in richer cities, housing rundown CBD's
Ethnic segregation and solutions
Rapid urbanisation
Development of squatter settlements
The…

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The Burgess Model


· Designed in the
1920's by Ed Burgess in
Chicago,

· Breaks cities down
into 5 areas using
concentric rings.

· Each ring/area has a
different function/job.

· It describes the
different areas of a city.

Inside Cities
CBD's: Central Business district. This is the core of…

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Green field Site Brownfield site
Never been built on before Redeveloped site
Building ruins the environment More sustainable
Cheaper to build on More expensive to build on


Advantages of Greenfield sites Advantages of Brownfield sites
New sites don't need clearing so can be Sites in cities are not left derelict…

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Revitalising CBDS

Some CBDS are becoming run down due to other out-of-town shopping centres and business parks,
which have cheaper rent and are easier to drive to.

CASE STUDY: MEDC REVITALISING CBD: BIRMINGHAM


In the 1950's Birmingham was an exciting market place with lots of shops
1960's ­ development of…

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Birmingham City Council's transport strategy:

Increased number of buses has led to an increase in passenger numbers, e.g. on route 69
there has been a 27% increase

11 extra key rail routes for commuters, e.g. the Jewellery line in operation since 1995

Metro (Light Railway) links Birmingham and Wolverhampton (20.4km…

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· Improve communications, involve leaders of different ethnic communities when making
decisions. This leads to inclusiveness and will help in dealing with cultural sensitivities.

· Offer suitable services, for example in some countries it is unacceptable to be seen by a
different gender doctor, make sure that the appropriate services…

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hours for low pay. This is called the Informal · Crime problem, limited policing.
Economy. Workers pay no tax, but have zero
job security, pensions or health care. · Children often don't go to school, limiting
education.
· Houses not provided with
sanitation/toilets, piped water, electricity, road · Families live…

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Scheme is led by the City council/ local authority.

Trying to improve the quality of life in the Dharavi slum in Mumbai.

Quality of life and housing has plummeted as the slums have multiplied.
Land is worth in excess of $10billion to developers.

Plan involves demolishing the slums and giving…

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Waste discharges from factories are now checked to ensure that the river is cleaner.

More public toilets have been built to reduce the amount of raw sewage being dumped into
the river.
Air Solutions

A new metro system in 2011 aims to reduce congestion and encourage more people to use…

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Meetings in local halls where plans can be seen and discussed = opportunity to give views +
feeling of inclusion not exclusion
Providing an efficient public transport system
· Volume of cars as private transport = barrier to sustainability of a city
· Congestion charging = unattractive to drivers ==>…

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