The Crusades: A-level history

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  • Created by: mo_dxo
  • Created on: 14-05-18 12:58
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  • Crusades
    • First Crusade:
      • The Eight Princes
        • Hugh of Vermadois, Raymond of Toulouse, Tancred, Baldwin of Boulogne, Bohemond of Taranto, Godfrey of Bouillon, Stephen of Blois, Robert of Flanders & Robert of Normandy.
      • Why people wanted to go on crusades
        • Social
          • Crusaders making a reputation: Some of the Princes Fathers had previously gone on crusades, so the sons may have felt as if they needed to live up to their reputation.
          • Gaining a status: some crusaders knew that they could potentially capture land and therefore would earn a status for themselves e.g. King.
        • Economic
          • Privileges granted: their property was protected while on crusade, did not have to pay taxes, immune from arrest, exempt from secular justice.
          • Princes gain Kingship: the princes gain financial stability and land from the surrounding cities, this therefore gives some of them kingships.
        • Religious
          • Peace and Truce of God: going on crusades meant that knights could perform their duties without going against God's wishes.
          • Pilgrimages: a crusade meant that people had the chance of going on an armed pilgrimage.
          • Remission of sins: as crusades were in the favor of God, crusaders had a 'clean slate'.
          • Pope Urban II: he felt like he needed to reestablish himself after the recent conflicts in France (excommunication of King Phillip I).
        • Political
          • Call from the East: the Byzantine Empire lost some of their land and needed help to regain it.
          • Pope Urban II: also wanted to gain supporters due to what happened to him and King Phillip at Clermont.
      • Results of Crusade
        • The First Crusade was a huge success because of different factors such as: Muslim disunity, strong leadership, clear aims, preparation, motives and support from the Byzantine.
          • Muslim disunity: the Muslim world was divided into Shi'ah Fatimids and the Sunni Seljuk Turks due to there being no strong leader of the Muslim world after the death of Malik Shah in 1092. Additionally, there was no unifying ideology such as jihad within this period/crusade so they had groups building their own power bases that wouldn't cooperate with one another.
            • Kilij Arslan wasn't able to protct Nicea as he was dealing with a rebellion elsewhere but he also underestimated the power of the crusaders and didn't take the threat as seriously as he should've.
          • Strong leadership: demonstrated at Dorylaeum in July 1097, through Bohemonds military tactics which held off Muslim forces for long enough that Godfrey and Baldwin were able to join. Baldwin held Kerbogha off for long enough that the crusaders could get into Antioch, he supplied Godfreys army with resources due to him controlling Edessa. Bohemond enabled the crusaders to get into Antioch in May 1098, by keeping good control and formation against Kerboghas army. Godfrey moved the siege towers later on so that they crusaders could attack Jerusalem and slaughter anyone in the way in July 1099. Lastly, the crusaders defeated the Fatimids at Ascalon following their victory of Jerusalem.
          • Aims, preparation & motives: one clear aim of capturing Jerusalem unlike the Second Crusade where there were many unclear aims. Crusaders left in August when harvest had come so they knew that there would be plenty of supplies and they travelled separately meaning that there was less pressure on land. It was a well funded crusade, and was 6 years worth of income so some sold land to gain money for it. Remission of sins and plenary indulgence had motivated the crusaders as well as Peter Bartolomew's discovery of the 'Holy Lance' which increased their motivation and helped to defeat Kerbogha's army.
    • Second Crusade: 1147-1149
      • Why did the Second Crusade start?
        • Fall of Edessa: in 1144, Zengi, governor of Mosul captured Edessa leading to the lost of the northernmost crusader state.
        • Holy war against Islam: second major crusade launched from Europe as a war against Islam in 1147, as a response to the fall of Edeassa that was previously founded by Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098.
      • Preaching of the Second Crusade
        • St Bernard of Clairvaux: granted the same indulgences as Pope Urban II for the First Crusade.
        • Pope Eugenius III: as shocked by the fall of Edessa in 1144. While in France (1147) he urged King Louis VII the Young to lead a crusade for the liberation of Edessa, naming Bernard as its preacher.
        • Papal Bull: the papal bull that launched the Second Crusade was called 'Quantum Praedcessores'
      • Leaders of Second Crusade
        • King Louis VII: possibly joined crusade as a penance for burning down a church in Vitry or to fulfil his late brothers vow to go to Jerusalem.
        • King Conrad III: support of a large army, used the call to crusade to consolidate his empire in the empire, as his rivals had already declared to go on crusade.
      • Result of the Second Crusade
        • The Second Crusade was a failure because of different factors such as: lack of communication between the leaders, travelling separately, growing Muslim unity, lack of support from the Byzantine, lack of communication from Outremer.
        • Lack of communication between leaders: Louis lacked sufficient funding for the Crusade, this caused there to be a lakc of supplies which created a lack of discipline amongst foot soldiers. This culminated in the army being shut outside of Constantinople. Conrad recieved a near fatal head injury near Dorylaeum so he could not lead his army, as a result many deserted.
        • Growing Muslim unity: they defeated Conrad near Dorylaeum in Oct 1147, defeated Louis at Mt. Cadmus in Jan 1148. Unur of Damascus and Nur ad-Din were allied so their unity contributed to the Crusaders retreat at Damascus.
        • Lack of communication with Outremer: before 1147 there was no communication with Outremer. Louis didn't trust Raymond of Antioch as he believed that he was having an incestuous affair with Louis wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, so he wouldn't support Raymonds plan at the conference in Acre. There were disagreements during the council of Acre over where to attack; Louis already disregarded Raymonds plan to attack Aleppo and Baldwin was against Ascalon.
        • Lack of support from Byzantium: Louis' alliance with Roger of Sicily meant Mnauel I distrusted him, he felt that threatened that he made a temporary truce with Seljuk Turks.- allowed Manuel to bring soldiers to Constantinople to defend Byzantium if necessary, making it hard for Crusaders to cross Antolia. Manuel shut the gates of Constantinople to keep Louis and undisciplined Crusaders out.
  • Second Crusade: 1147-1149
    • Why did the Second Crusade start?
      • Fall of Edessa: in 1144, Zengi, governor of Mosul captured Edessa leading to the lost of the northernmost crusader state.
      • Holy war against Islam: second major crusade launched from Europe as a war against Islam in 1147, as a response to the fall of Edeassa that was previously founded by Baldwin of Boulogne in 1098.
    • Preaching of the Second Crusade
      • St Bernard of Clairvaux: granted the same indulgences as Pope Urban II for the First Crusade.
      • Pope Eugenius III: as shocked by the fall of Edessa in 1144. While in France (1147) he urged King Louis VII the Young to lead a crusade for the liberation of Edessa, naming Bernard as its preacher.
      • Papal Bull: the papal bull that launched the Second Crusade was called 'Quantum Praedcessores'
    • Leaders of Second Crusade
      • King Louis VII: possibly joined crusade as a penance for burning down a church in Vitry or to fulfil his late brothers vow to go to Jerusalem.
      • King Conrad III: support of a large army, used the call to crusade to consolidate his empire in the empire, as his rivals had already declared to go on crusade.
    • Result of the Second Crusade
      • The Second Crusade was a failure because of different factors such as: lack of communication between the leaders, travelling separately, growing Muslim unity, lack of support from the Byzantine, lack of communication from Outremer.
      • Lack of communication between leaders: Louis lacked sufficient funding for the Crusade, this caused there to be a lakc of supplies which created a lack of discipline amongst foot soldiers. This culminated in the army being shut outside of Constantinople. Conrad recieved a near fatal head injury near Dorylaeum so he could not lead his army, as a result many deserted.
      • Growing Muslim unity: they defeated Conrad near Dorylaeum in Oct 1147, defeated Louis at Mt. Cadmus in Jan 1148. Unur of Damascus and Nur ad-Din were allied so their unity contributed to the Crusaders retreat at Damascus.
      • Lack of communication with Outremer: before 1147 there was no communication with Outremer. Louis didn't trust Raymond of Antioch as he believed that he was having an incestuous affair with Louis wife, Eleanor of Aquitaine, so he wouldn't support Raymonds plan at the conference in Acre. There were disagreements during the council of Acre over where to attack; Louis already disregarded Raymonds plan to attack Aleppo and Baldwin was against Ascalon.
      • Lack of support from Byzantium: Louis' alliance with Roger of Sicily meant Mnauel I distrusted him, he felt that threatened that he made a temporary truce with Seljuk Turks.- allowed Manuel to bring soldiers to Constantinople to defend Byzantium if necessary, making it hard for Crusaders to cross Antolia. Manuel shut the gates of Constantinople to keep Louis and undisciplined Crusaders out.

Comments

Ttmreflexin

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piece of **** on my shoe

- DO NOT USE 

lucy121

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great mindmap. Easy to read and nice to look at.

fjane1702

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good resource, helpful and very informative. Use if in need of first and second crusade help :)

fjane1702

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******* great. please use!!!! used this for the second time today 

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