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  • Created by: TomT95
  • Created on: 17-11-13 16:06
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  • Catalysis
    • Heterogeneous catalysis & making catalysts more efficient
      • present in a reaction in a different phase than the reactants
      • increase surface area
        • the larger the surface area, the better the efficiency
      • spread catalyst onto an inert support medium, or even impregnate it into one
        • increase the surface-to-mass ratio
      • catalysts do not last forever
        • poisoning - surfaces become covered with unwanted impurities
        • finely divided catalysts may be lost from the support medium over time
    • Some important examples of heterogeneous catalysis
      • Haber process
        • iron catalyst
          • lasts five years before becoming poisoned
          • peas-sized lumps; increases surface area
      • Contact process
        • vanadium(v) oxide catalyst
      • manufacture of methanol
        • synthesis gas is made from methane
        • chromium oxide catalyst
    • Homogeneous catalysis & a further example of catalysis by transition metals
      • present in the same phase as the reactants, an intermediate is formed
      • peroxodisulfate ions oxidise iodide ions to iodine
    • Autocatalysis
      • when one of the products of the reaction is a catalyst of the reaction
      • oxidation of ethanedioic acid by manganate(vii) ions


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