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Common features
Transition metals and their compounds can act as homogeneous
and heterogeneous catalysts because of their variable oxidation
states.
Catalysts:
o Lower the activation energy of a reaction
o Don't affect equilibrium position as they affect the forwards and
backwards reactions equally.
o Are more effective if SA:V ratio is high ­ that is why they are
often coated on a ceramic support for increased SA (this also
decreases the cost in industry).…read more

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Heterogeneous catalysts
o Exist in a different phase to reactants.
o Reaction happens at active sites on
surface:
1. Adsorption
2. The reaction
3. Desorption…read more

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Example of Heterogeneous Catalysis -
Contact Process
Sulphuric acid manufacture
Vanadium catalyst (has variable oxidation states)
Step 1
SO2 (g) + V2O5 (s) SO3 (g) + V2O4 (s)
Step 2
V2O4 (s) + ½O2 (g) V2O5 (s)…read more

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Industrial catalysts
o Methanol manufacture from
carbon monoxide and
hydrogen chromium oxide
catalyst (Cr2O3)
o Haber Process iron catalyst
o Catalytic converters
platinum and rhodium…read more

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Homogeneous catalysts
o Exist in the same phase as
reactants.
o An example is the nickel
catalyst in the
hydrogenation of vegetable
oil.
o Occurs through an
intermediate species.…read more

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