The Ozone Story

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  • The Ozone Story
    • gas concentrations can be expressed in per cent or parts per million (ppm)
      • convert % to ppm by multiplying by 10,000
      • convert ppm to % by dividing by 10,000
      • calculations involving gases and measuring volumes of gas
    • intermolecular forces
      • temporary and permanent dipoles
      • hydrogen bonding
    • factors affecting rate of reaction
      • catalysts - provide an alternative reaction pathway with a lower activation energy
        • heterogeneous catalysis and homogeneous catalysis
      • concentration - greater concentration means more molecules so increases the frequency of successful collisions
      • temperature - increasing temperature increases kinetic energy - therefore more molecules have sufficient energy to overcome the activation energy
        • the effect of temperature on rate (diagram)
      • intensity of radiation - increasing intensity of radiation increases rate of reaction
      • particle size - powder reacts faster than a solid lump as the surface area is increased
      • measuring rates:rate = change in property/ time
        • mass changes
        • volume changes
        • colorimetry
        • pH changes
    • haloalkanes
      • reactions of haloalkanes
      • naming haloalkanes
      • reactions of haloalkanes
        • reactivity of haloalkanes increases down group 7 because bond enthalpy decreases
        • nucleophilic substitution
    • radiation and radicals
      • formation of radicals
      • radical chain reaction
        • initiation -> propagation -> termination
    • energy and matter
    • light and electrons

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