British legislation in India

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  • British legislation in India
    • Indian councils act 1862.
      • Reorganised the Viceroys legislative council.
      • Allowed provincial legislative councils to set up.
        • Members chosen by government not elected.
        • Could only discuss legislation not enact it.
          • Limited power
    • 1892 Indian councils act.
      • Indians could recommend additional members for the provincial legislative council.
        • Membership dominated by Raj officials.
      • Could discuss finance as well as legislation
        • Could ask questions of the executive and expect an answer.
    • Indian councils act 1909.(Morley- Minto reforms)
      • 60 Indian representatives on the viceroys executive council.
      • Provincial councils enlarged to create non-official majority.
      • Separate electorates promised for Hindus and Muslims.
        • Gave Muslims a voice.
        • Congress was disappointed
      • Two Indians could join the Secretary of Sate's Indian council in London.
        • British administrators were disheartened because it diluted their power.
      • Indians involved in policy making in Britain and India.
    • Partition of Bengal 1905.
      • Split Bengal into two provinces.
        • Hindus hated it.
          • Led to rioting
        • Muslims generally supported it.
          • No longer controlled by Hindu majority.
      • To make administration easier.
    • Montagu declaration
      • Recognised a need for clear and straightforward policy in India.
    • Government of India Act 1919(Montagu- Chelmsford reform)
      • Viceroy was to be advised by 6 civilians 3 had to be Indians.
      • Viceroy could enforce laws even if the legislative council disagreed.
      • Provincial and central legislative councils were enlarged.
      • Provincials councils given control of:
        • Education
        • Agriculture
        • Health
        • Public works
        • Local self government.
      • British retained control of :
        • Military
        • Criminal law
        • Foreign affairs
        • Currency
        • Communications
      • Franchise increased
        • Still based on tax paid.
        • Provincial legislatures could give women the vote.
          • 1% of women could vote.
      • Reserved seats for minority groups and special interest groups.
      • Was called diarchy divided power in provinces between British and Indians.
    • Rowlatt act 1919

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