- 'Indian Councils Act' 1909.
- 1905-Outbreak of violence after the partition of Bengal-Boycott of British goods.
- 1906-Congress demanded Home Rule.
- John Morley-Member of Liberal Gov. Liberals were ready to make changes in India.
- Lord Minto- Wanted to stamp out extremism after the partition of Bengal.
- Indians were allowed to sit on the Imperial Legislative Council for the first time.
- Direct elections for seats on the Provincial Legislative Council were introduced-Gave Indians a greater voice.
- Muslims and other minority groups gained seperate representation
- Didnt give Indians real influence in administration.
- Divided Hindus and Muslims by treating them as separate communities.
- Very few Indians could actually vote.
- Established a principle of communism in Indian politics-Treating different religious groups as different political groups.
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Montagu Chelmsford Reforms
- In April 1918, E.S Montagu and Viceroy Lord Chelmsford produced a report suggesting reforms of the Indian Gov.
- The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms were announced August 1918 and were put into practice by the Government of India Act in 1919.
- Many Indians welcomed the Reforms but were opposed by the ones who expected complete Home Rule.
- Before the Acts were passed, much of the work promised by reforms was undermined by events elsewhere.
- In an attempt to put down the terrorist outbreaks in the Punjab, the Rowlatt Acts were passed in March 1919.
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- The Acts were passed in March 1919.
- The Acts extended the Defence of India Act into peacetime.
- They allowed the gov. of India to arrest and intern troublemakers without trial and allowed judges to try offenders without a jury.
- Opposed by ALL Indian members of the Imperial Legislative Council.
- They came at a time when many Indians were expecting some form of self-goverment.
- Hopes had been raised and destroyed by the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.
- Rowlatt Acts suggested that the British Gov. had no intention on relaxing its grip on India.
- Bal Tilak the leader of the Indian National Congress was in London when the Acts were passed, thus allowing Gandhi to emerge as the real leader of Congress.
- Gandhi announced a Hartal, a day of fasting and stoppage of work. This in turn ed to widespread protests and rioting,which in turn led to the Armitsar Massacre.
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The Government of India Act
- Passed in December 1919. It put into effect the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms. This set up the system which became known as the Dyarchy.
- An Executive Council was set up to advise the Viceroy. It included the Viceroy,Commander-in-Chief and six other members (Inc.three Indians)
- The Imperial Legislative Council was renamed to Imperial Legislative Assembly.
- A Council of State was set up with 61 members. This was to review legislation passed by assembly.
- The British members of the Council dealt with areas such as:defence,foreign relations and taxation.The Indian members dealt with: education,sanitation and agriculture.
- In the Indian provinces an Executive Council appointed by the Governor would be responsible to a Legislative Council elected by popular vote.
- Provincial Governments now had both Indian and British ministers.
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The Simon Commission
- In 1927, the Simon Commission was apppointed to review the Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms.
- It recommended a responsible government for the provinces and a fedral India, but no changes in the central government.
- The Commission included no Indians and led to mass protests. Congress boycotted all meetings.
- As a result, in 1928 Jawaharla Nehru was able to persuade Congress to vote for total independence for the first time.
- 21st January was claimed as Independence Day and a Declaration of Independence was drawn up.
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