Political Events in India 1900-1919

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The Morley-Minto Reforms

  • The British neede to reduce Indian bad feeling after the partiton on Bengal
  • Lord Morley (Secretary of state) believed in giving Indians the vote
  • Lord Minto (Viceroy) wanted to see more Indians appointed to executive roles
  • The purpose of the reforms was to rduce the gap between rulers and ruled
    • The fear of mutiny lurked behind the sense of being out of touch
  • It was not intended to set up a parliamentry system in India
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The Effect of the Morley-Mito reforms

  • Two nomintate India members were put on the Council of India in London (who advised the Secretory of State for India)
  • There were modest chages on provicial, central and executive levels
  • Most councils retainted a majority of officals than elected members-may be seen as a way of ensuring its constant and uniterrupted power
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Criticism of the Morley-Minto Reforms

British Criticism:

  • Curzon believed they were paving a way for parliamentary government 
  • Was also said that bringing Indian legislators closer with the British would cause the government to be less concered with the poorest in society
  • Was stated that administration in Inida will only be good if it is British 

Indian View's:

  • Congress protested
  • Muslims were satisfied
    • Council seats were resperved distinctively for Muslims
    • Bringing in a cross section of public opinion could only be guaranteed by reserving seats for specified goups 
  • It was clear however, that nothing much had changed
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The Home Rule Campaign

  • Based on the campaigns for Irish home rule
  • Campaigns were led by Tilak and Annie Beasant
  • Home Rule = full internal government whilst British control foreign affairs
  • Moderate congressmen believed this was too radical
  • Nehru and Jinnah both joined campaigns
  • The British clamped down on the organisations - campaigners were arrested
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The Lucknow Pact

  • An agreement between Congress and the Leauge
  • There would be a link between the proportion of seats the leauge would contest and the proportion of Muslims in provinces
  • No Muslim could contest a seat outside the reserved quota
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The Montugu Declaration

  • Annonced the gradual development of self governing insitutions
  • A clear sense that an Indian parliament would be created with an executive answerable to it
  • Attempt to defuse the Home Rule Campaign 
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The Rowlatt Act

  • British were uneasy post war
    • Tsarist regime overthrown, America was getting powerful, Arabs overthrown Ottoman Turkish rule
  • Unlimited detiontion without trial
  • Trial without jury and the use of evidence which under normal conditions would be illegal
  • Anyone with a seditious newspaper could be sent to prison for two years
  • Gandhi called a nationwide hartal 
  • The Act was repealed in 1922 - its provisions were never used 
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The Montagu-Chelmsford Reforms

  • Promised self-government at some point in the future and a review in 10 years time
  • The franchise was exteneded - based on property and restricted to men
  • Dyarchy was introduced 
    • Provinces were responsible for land tax and irrigation
    • Central government was responsible for income tax, railways, defence and foreign affairs
    • Indians were responsible for education health and agriculture 
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