B1: cell-level systems

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  • B1: cell-level systems
    • what happens in cells?
      • DNA
        • a double-helix structure
        • made of nucleotides
        • contains codes for all characterisitics in an organism.
        • there are pairs of genes; AT , CG.
      • enzymes
        • large protein molecules
        • CATALYSTS-speed up reactions.
        • each enzyme specific to one reaction.
        • factors affecting rate of reaction: temperature, PH, substrate concentration, enzyme concentration.
        • if too hot or PH incorrect the enzyme becomes denatured.
      • digestion
        • carbohydrates use CARBOHYDRASE for sugars
        • proteins use protease for amino acids
        • lipids use lipase for fatty acids and glycerol
    • respiration...
      • aerobic respiration...
        • Untitled


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