Locomotor system for radiotherapy and oncology uni level

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  • Created by: Chloe
  • Created on: 02-04-13 13:56
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  • Locomotor system
    • bone remodelling
      • renews bone before deterioration sets in
        • old bone absorbed by osteoclasts and replaced with new osteoid secreted by osteoblasts
    • types of bone: short, irregular, sesamoid, long, flat
      • Long: hard outer of compact bone and spongy inner (cancellous bone)
        • both ends covered in hyaline cartilage: protects bone and aids in shock absorption
        • Epiphysic: distal/proximal ends of bone. Diaphysis: shaft.   Metaphysis: where diaphysis joins epiphysis.  Periosteum: tough sheath surrounding bone surface where its not covered by cartilage.  Medulla cavity: in diaphysis, contains bone marrow.
      • sesamoid: short or irregular bones embedded  in a tendon
    • why do we need calcium:
      • enzymes/nerve cells/blood clotting
    • Functions of locomotor system
      • Mineral homeostasis: stores minerals
      • Haemopoesis
      • Triglyceride storage: stores in yellow bone marrow
      • support, movement, protection
    • osteogenesis: process of laying down new bone material done by osteoblasts
    • low levels of Ca  (normal levels are 9-11mg/100mL
      • parathyroid gland- PTH released
        • decomp of bone so ca released ^ absorption of ca from urine by kidneys/from food by intestines
    • fracture repair
      • formation of fracture haematoma
        • fibrocartilaginous callus formation
          • bony callus formation + bone remodelling
    • ossification: process of bone formation which connective tissues are turned into bone
    • Bone cells
      • osteogenic
        • unspecialised. derived from mesenchyme. undergo cell division. daughter cells develop into osteoblasts
      • osteoblasts
        • bone building cells. synthesise and secrete collagen. no cell division
      • osteocyte
        • mature bone cells. maintains daily metabolism. no cell division
      • osteoclast
        • breaks down bone matrix- resorption
    • Compact bone
      • external layer of bone. bulk of diaphysis. OSTEONS. penetrated by vessels/lymphetc through volkmans canals.
    • spongy bone
      • TRABECULAE. makes up most of bone tissue of flat/short bones. forms epiphysis of long bones


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