Fundamental   s of computer systems 

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  • Created by: Zoe16
  • Created on: 04-04-15 11:47
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  • Fundamentals of computer systems
    • Types of computer systems:
      • Control system
        • A system that controls machinery rather than produce outputs for users.
        • Examples ; part of domestic & personal gadgets
      • Dedicated system
        • Performs a single function or set of functions.
        • Examples; Ticket vending machine at train station
      • Embedded system
        • systems part of a larger system.
          • Advantages
            • More devices can be added to system to make it better
            • Does task straight away - Real Time
            • Economical- designed to do specific task - and only that task only
        • Examples; satnavs, cameras, digital watches or even Traffic lights.
          • Advantages
            • More devices can be added to system to make it better
            • Does task straight away - Real Time
            • Economical- designed to do specific task - and only that task only
      • General-purpose System
        • (apps)  can be loaded on the for various uses
        • Designed to perform multiple tasks
        • Examples; Desktops, Laptops & Smartphones
      • Expert system
        • Designed to behave like humans.
        • They have a  Knowledge Base, an  inference base and an interface
          • Advantages
            • Designed to behave like humans.
            • Examples; diagnosis of diseases, Suggesting purchase to consumers
            • Disadvantage
              • Cannot adapt to changing environments unless data knowledge is changed,
              • Lack of common sense &errors in knowledge = wrong decisions made
            • Holds lots of info,
            • Asks humans questions & Works all the time 24hrs
        • Examples; diagnosis of diseases, Suggesting purchase to consumers
      • Management information systems
        • Bring together information form all parts of an organisation
        • Examples; In schools- dealing with online registers or
    • A computer is an electronic, programmable data processing machine
    • System- collection of parts that work together for a purpose
    • Reliabilty
      • Mistakes can lead to ..
        • Down Time=period of time that a system fails to provide or perform its primary function
        • Expensive errors
        • Data loss & Compromise privacy
      • Uses.. with the need for reliabilty
        • Aircraft navigation & control
          • Railway signalling
            • Medical Situations
      • Data Integrity
        • Maintaining  accuracy and consistency in data
        • Data integrity can be compromised by:
          • Human errors
            • Errors when data is transferred from one computer to another.
              • Software bugs
                • Viruses or natura distaters
        • Ways to reduce risks to data:
          • Backing up regularly
            • Controlling access to data
              • Validation rules- prevent invalid data to be input
                • Error detections and correction software
        • Testing
          • Reliability is improve through testing.
          • Designed to overcome errors
          • Testing can never be complete...
            • Very time consuming
              • Testing is expensive
                • Software is so complex
    • Ethnic and Legal issues
      • Data Protection
        • The intention to protect privacy of individuals when data stored on computers.
        • Typical data laws;
          • Allowing people to view data held about them.
          • Correct info when requested
          • Use data without causing damage
          • Protect data from unauthorised access
          • Only collect data that meets purpose
        • Cyber crime is a result from lack of data protection
      • Ethical Act- is one that is morally right
      • Legal Act- is one that does not break any laws
      • Challenges that organisations face for the need for protection
    • Environmental Issues
      • Waste
        • Computers have to be disposed of.
        • They contain toxic materials like:  Beryllium, lead & cadmium
        • Waste goes to landfills
          • Toxic chemicals go into the soil.
        • Burning of materials to get valuable materials
          • Old computers contain plastics & when burnt =dangerous dioxides
      • Reduce Energy use
        • Solid state storage uses less energy than the rotating disk drives
        • Automatic standby switch
        • Setting air condition at optimum level
        • Modern screens that use less energy than old monitors.
        • Laying out  equipment = cooled efficiently
      • Benefits of computers to the environment
        • Reduces need for transport of goods
        • Goods made by robots to a greater degree of accuracy
        • More efficient products =last longer &use less energy
    • Importance of computer systems
      • Improved quality
        • Robot machinery= more accurate
      • Cheaper manufacturing
      • Faster access to information
      • Better decision making
      • New ways of communicating
        • SMS
        • Email
        • Cell phone
    • Computer system- collection of hardware and software to work to gather &achieve game task

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