Attribution and Social Knowledge     

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  • Created by: Shannon
  • Created on: 12-01-16 20:23
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  • Attribution and Social Knowledge     
    • We try to understand our world in an orderly and meaningful way
      • Feel uncomfrotable if no understanding
      • Our judgement of people depends on how we explain our behaviour
    • Attributions
      • Process of assigning a cause to our own behaviour and that of others
      • 7 theoretical emphases
        • Theory of naive psychology - Heider
          • People are intuitive psychologists who construct casual theories of human behaviour
            • We construct adequate explanations of why people behave in certain ways
              • Allows us to predict whether someone will behave in a certain way
                • 1. We feel our own behaviour is motivated rather than random which is why we look for causes
                  • 2. We construct casual theories in order to be able to predict and control the environment
                    • 3. In attributing casuality for behaviour we distinguish between personal dispositional attribution and evironmental situational attribution
              • Munroe and Jacobson
                • Happy couples attribute feelings of their partner to outside causes
              • Abbey
                • Men are more likely to attribute a women's friendliness to sexual interest
                  • Misattribution
                    • Mistakenly attributing a behaviour to the wrong source
              • Attribution theory
                • The theory of how people explain other's behaviour by attributing it to motives or attributions or external situation
                • Dispositional attribution
                  • Internal
                    • Motives and attitudes
                • Situational attribution
                  • External
                    • Physical and social circumstances
                • Three performance dimensions
                  • Locus - Is the performance caused by the actor (internal) or situation (external)
                  • Stability - Is the internal or external cause a stable or unstable one
                  • Controlability- to what extent is future task performance
        • Theory of correspondent inferences - Jones and Davis
          • Specifies the conditions under which people infer traits
            • How we infer that a friendly action is due to an underlying disposition to be friendly
          • Expected behaviour tells us less about the person than does unusual behaviour - SAM SARCASM EXAMPLE
          • People like to attribute behaviour to underlying disposition because it is stable and increases our sense of control over the world
          • Five cues that make a correspondent inference
            • Freely chosen behaviour is more indicative of a disposition
            • Socially undesirable behaviour is better basis for making a correspondent inference
              • Socially desirable behaiviour tells us little about a person's disposition as it is controlled by societal norms
            • More confident correspondent inferences about others when their behaviour is intented to benefit or harm us
        • Covariation model - Kelley
          • Consistency
            • How consistent is the person's behaviour in this situation
          • Distinctiveness
            • How specific is the person's behaviour to this particular situation
          • Consensus
            • To what extent do others in this situation behave similarly
        •  Schachter’s theory of emotional lability
          • Emotions have two distinct components
            • A state of physiological arousal which does not differentiate between emotions
              • Cognitons which label the arousal and determine which emotion is experienced
        • Attributional styles - Rotter
          • Internals
            • Think they have enormous amount of control over their destiny
          • Externals
            • They believe they have little control over what happens to them
        • Bem's self- perception theory
          • We gain knowledge of ourselves only by making self-attributions
            • We infer our own attitudes from our own behaviour


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