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A status entered after birth and usually due at least in part to individual behaviour.
Power assigned according to norms and generally accepted as legitimate by those
over whom it is exercised.
A method of posing and answering questions that relies on clear, objective
guidelines for gathering and interpreting observable evidence.
The process through which people more from one position in a stratification system
Following is the classic definition by the anthropologist Sir Edward B. Tylor, "That
complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any
other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of society of society."
According to Alfred L. Kroeber and Clyde Kluckhohn, "culture consists of patterns,
explicit and implicit, of and for behaviour acquired and transmitted by symbols,
constituting the distinctive achievements of human groups, including their
embodiments in artefacts; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (i.e.,
historically derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values." Of
course, symbolic interactionists would add that the essence of culture is language
(i.e., symbols), as the essence of reality is language or symbols. For this school,
culture is most generally identified as "systems of human meaning." It should be
pointed out that some sociologists exclude artefacts or material objects from their
definitions of culture; they include in culture technical knowledge about the
artefacts but do not include the artefacts themselves. Other sociologists and
cultural anthropologists have suggested combining the concepts culture and
society contending that all human phenomena are sociocultural in nature. In
Marxian sociology culture is conceptualised as part of the superstructure; and is
thus seen as an outgrowth-upgrowth of the economic infrastructure.
The process through which people learn to think, feel, evaluate, and behave as
individuals in relation to others and social systems.
A theoretical and ideological framework that directly opposes sexism by supporting
Incompatibility of enactment of two or more different roles that one person can
enact at a certain time or place. The role conflict can be of short duration, tied
to a certain situation, or long-lived. An example of role conflict would be a
husband and father who is also Chief of Police. If a tornado strikes the small town
he is living in, the man has to decide if he should go home and be with his family
and fulfil the role of being a good husband and father or remain and fulfil the duties
of a "good" Chief of Police because the whole town need his expertise.
An approach or orientation of studying social and cultural phenomena. It holds
that society is essentially a set of interrelated parts, e.g., institutions, beliefs,
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It is held
that no part, its existence, or operation, can be understood in isolation from the
whole. Society is seen, from this position, as analogous to the human body or any
other living organism. Each of the "parts" of society are seen as operating much
like organs of the body.…read more