Climate Basics

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  • Atmosphere
    • Structure
      • Troposphere
        • closest to the earth and most weather happens here
          • extends up 12km
        • temp. decreases with altitude
          • due to earths surface warms troposphere so further away=cooler
        • Wind speeds increase
        • Most unstable layer
        • end of this sphere is marked by the tropoPAUSE
          • An isothermal layer where temp remains constant
          • boundary between troposphere and stratosphere
        • Lots of turbulence as warm air raises and cool air sinks
        • lots of clouds due to high water vapour
      • Stratosphere
        • Steady increase in temp.
          • due to ozone layer absorbing UV radiation
        • StratoPAUSE boundary between stratosphere and mesosphere
        • atmosphere is thinner here
        • 12km-50km up
      • Mesosphere
        • temp. decreases to -90
          • due to being warmed by stratosphere further away=cooler
            • Untitled
        • no water vapour or dust to absorb radiation
        • very strong winds at 3000km/h
        • 50km-85-90km
        • mesoPAUSE boundary between mesosphere and thermosphere
      • Thermosphere
        • Increase in temp. from the absorption of UV radiation from small amounts of oxygen
        • 85-90-1000km
        • WEATHER
          • SHORT-TERM atmospheric conditions in a particular place
            • e.g. temo., cloud cover, wind speed
        • CLIMATE
          • LONG-TERM atmospheric conditions in a particular place
            • e.g. average measurements of  temp
        • atmosphere contains dry air and water vapour
          • Dry air is mixture of gases including nitorogen (78%), oxygen(21%)


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