Aristotle (1)

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  • Aristotle
    • Overview
      • Aristotle rejected Plato's world of the forms. Emphasised the physical worlds
      • He had a teleological concept of life. Things are defined in terms of ends or purposes
      • Communities aim at some good
    • Teleology
      • World conforms to rational pattern
        • Everything has its own distinct characteristics and potential
    • Community
      • Koinonia: Sharing, partnership, association
        • For Aristotle, all communities aim at some good towards a shared end
      • Marriage: fundamental partnership
        • Farmer and slave: Natural partnership aimed at self-preservation
    • 'The Good': Eudaimonia
      • Friendship, justice and freedom = essential
      • Eudaimonia = The good life.(For humans) A life for flourishing and living well
        • Live a life of virtue, ethically and intellectually
      • Ethical Virtues = courage,honesty, generosity
      • Intellectual Virtues: Practical Wisdom
      • The Telos (end) of human life is develop the potential for virtue brought about by human characteristic of reason
      • The 'happy' man values philosophy and develops virtue
    • The Polis
      • City-state. = Aristotles' fundamental community
      • Should aim at 'the good life'
        • Controls all others
    • Constitutions
      • Kingship, Aristocracy and Republic
      • 3 Perversions of this: Tyranny, Oligarchy and Democracy
      • For Aristotle best political arrangement = mix of Democracy and Oligarchy (rule by wise and virtuous few)
        • This is a 'Polity'
      • Poor should not be excluded
    • Democracy Issues
      • Not everybody is equally fit to rule
        • Not every court should be a 'people's court'.
    • Argument from 'Collective Wisdom' (In favour of Democracy
      • Large group of people may be superior collectively
      • Better to involve more people contributing a small amount
      • However not if they are all stupid and ignorant
    • End-User Argument (In favour of Democracy
      • Expert is not always the best judge
      • Justifies some political input from the many


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