Ancient Philosophy: ARISTOTLE

  • Created by: _N27_
  • Created on: 14-10-18 16:41
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  • Ancient Philosophy - Aristotle
    • Empiricism
      • The belief that experience is the foundation of knowledge
      • Aristotle
        • The belief that experience is the foundation of knowledge
        • The Third Man Argument
          • Says that Plato must be wrong when he says that:
            • 1. Forms are unchanging
            • 2. Forms are representative of what they are Forms of
        • Teleology - the study of the purpose/ goal of something
    • The 4 Causes
      • 3. The Efficient Cause
        • The agent/ event that made the object come into existence (what actually created it)
          • E.G. The E.C. of the desk is the activity of the carpenter who made it
          • It brings about change in something
      • 2. The Formal Cause
        • What gives the object structure/ form/ shape
          • It allows the object to be identified as whatever it is
          • E.G. a desk is a desk because it is desk-shaped
      • 4. The Final Cause
        • The reason/ purpose of the object (the telos)
          • E.G. The F.C. of a desk is for writing at
          • E.G. The F.C. of a mug is for holding drinks
          • E.G. The F.C. of fur is to keep an animal warm
      • 1. The Material Cause
        • The matter/ substance that the object is made of
          • E.G. The material cause of a rat = the blood, muscle, fur, organs, bones etc.
          • Explains what something is made from, HOWEVER, it doesn't explain everything
      • Aristotle uses the theory of the 4 causes to explain the movement of all things from potentiality to actuality
    • The Prime Mover
      • Exists by necessity (it must exist)
      • It must be perfect - meaning it must have complete (pure) actuality
      • It is impassive - to experience emotion would mean bring about a change
      • It is eternal - beginning to exist or ceasing to exist would both constitue a change
      • Independent for its existence - it doesn't depend on anything for its existence
      • The F.C. of existence - the reason behind someone is to be closer to the PM
        • According to Aristotle, we want to be closer to the PM because of attraction (like a magnet)

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