6. What werethe main aims of the crusaders?

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  • 6. What were the main aims of the crusaders?
    • In papal letters, conflict was described as ''the business of faith (and peace)"
      • Rome determined on social and political programme to be undertaken militarily to undermine political support for heresy by excommunicating local rulers who were supporters of Catharism
        • thereby, allowing lords loyal to Rome to replace them
          • even as he made arrangements for crusade, pope envisaged such loyal lords would be from Languedoc
    • To secure territory
      • Crusaders concentrated on securing the submission of count Raymond VI's enemy, Raymond-Roger Trencavel
        • his towns of Beziers and Carcassonne  fell in the summer almost as soon as they were besieged
        • Raymond-Roger would perish in prison in Carcassonne
      • In summer of 1210, crusaders besieged and took Minerve, burning 140 unrepentant perfecti at stake
      • In spring of 1211, Monfort besieged Lavaur, a town long associated with Catharism and held by Guiraude of Laurac, sister of Amalric of Montreal
        • Town fell in early May 1210
      • Many castra fell to crusaders after fall of Lavaur
      • Army undertook first siege of Toulouse in summer of 1211 but were unsuccessful
      • In 1212, Simon of Monfort also secured much of northern Languedoc, lower Quercy, Biron in Perigord, and Agenais including castle at Penne d'Agenais, which was garrisoned by Hugh of Alfaro, Raymond VI's seneschal at Agen and son-in law
      • Castelsarrasin, Raymond VI's administrative centre for Quercy was also captured
      • Peter of Aragon had recognised that, whatever strategy for eradicating heresy the pope and his legates had envisaged, the secular 'policy' of crusaders was invasion
        • Slaughter at Casseneuil, Beziers and Lavaur had terrorised region and ensured swift surrender of its castra
        • Many named heretics were members of noble and military families
          • It was precisely those networks of secular power and kingship that were targeted by crusaders
            • Lands were confiscated by them, or heiresses were marrying lands
      • Fourth Lateran Council held in summer of 1215
        • Simon of Montfort given duchy of Narbonne and county of Toulouse, both ehld from king of France
        • Contradicts view Crusade was about claiming land
          • The marquisate of Provence and other lands east of river Rhone were under authority of Holy Roman Emperor
            • they were entrusted to papacy until Raymond VI's heir (Raymond VII) reached age of 21
    • Punishment and excommunication of heretics
      • After capture of Minerve in 1210, 140 unrepentant heretics were burnt at the stake
      • In 1210, Arnold Amalric and former troubadour Bishop Fulk of Toulouse founded short-lived White Confraternity to wear cross
        • in order to campaign against alleged heretics and usurers who seemed to correspond to prominent families in region
      • Lavaur, a targeted town, was long associated with heresy
        • Around four hundred heretics were burned and no attempt made to convert them
        • Guiraude was thrown down a well, followed by large rocks that crushed her
    • Re-establishment of Catholic faith
      • Prior to Crusade, Innocent III in 1205 suspended bishop of Beziers for failing to suppress heresy in his diocese
      • In 1212, Arnold Amalric was invested as new archbishop of Narbonne
    • French control
      • In December 1212, Statutes of Pamiers
        • attempted without success to impose 'the custom of France near Paris' concerning fealty and primogeniture on southern nobility,
          • making military provision for a long-term war and at same legalistically imposing northern French socio-political structures
      • In 1212, King of France intervened indirectly with a separate campaign against the count of Auvergne and country of Auvergne was eventually absorbed into French royal possessions
    • Limit the power of King Peter II  of Aragon
      • Peter and his brother Alfonso, count of Provence, were overlords of most of regions between northern Pyrenees and Provence that were not claimed by Raymond VI
      • Peter's marriage in 1204 had made him lord of Montpellier
      • Peter was compelled to hand his 3-year-old son James, as hostage to Simon of Montfort in 1211, and to agree to James' betrothal to Simon's daughter Amicie
      • Peter regained prestige by defeating an Almohad army at Las Navas de Tolosa on 16 July 1212
      • From January 1213
        • he undermined Montfort hold over Toulouse, Bearn and Comminges (all of which abutted onto the Pyrenees)
        • Impelled Pope Innocent to cancel crusade indulgences
          • Accused crusaders and legates of having indulged in greedy campaign of land acquisition
          • Temporary pause of crusade until May 1213
      • Clergy in southern France changed pope's mind
        • and they resumed crusade in May 1213 in order to put pressure on King Peter II of Aragon to renounce his support for his vassal the count of Toulouse
    • Serving ambitions of religious orders
      • A handful of religious houses received dozens of gifts of confiscated lands and goods
      • The new Order of Prachers (the Dominicans), founded in 1206, took on anti-heretical preaching mission of Cistercian Order
      • South of France was an important source of income and recruits for Templar and Hospitaller Military Orders

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